Simulation Intelligence: Towards a New Generation of Scientific Methods

Lavin, Alexander, Zenil, Hector, Paige, Brooks, Krakauer, David, Gottschlich, Justin, Mattson, Tim, Anandkumar, Anima, Choudry, Sanjay, Rocki, Kamil, Baydin, Atılım Güneş, Prunkl, Carina, Paige, Brooks, Isayev, Olexandr, Peterson, Erik, McMahon, Peter L., Macke, Jakob, Cranmer, Kyle, Zhang, Jiaxin, Wainwright, Haruko, Hanuka, Adi, Veloso, Manuela, Assefa, Samuel, Zheng, Stephan, Pfeffer, Avi Artificial Intelligence 

The original "Seven Motifs" set forth a roadmap of essential methods for the field of scientific computing, where a motif is an algorithmic method that captures a pattern of computation and data movement. We present the "Nine Motifs of Simulation Intelligence", a roadmap for the development and integration of the essential algorithms necessary for a merger of scientific computing, scientific simulation, and artificial intelligence. We call this merger simulation intelligence (SI), for short. We argue the motifs of simulation intelligence are interconnected and interdependent, much like the components within the layers of an operating system. Using this metaphor, we explore the nature of each layer of the simulation intelligence operating system stack (SI-stack) and the motifs therein: (1) Multi-physics and multi-scale modeling; (2) Surrogate modeling and emulation; (3) Simulation-based inference; (4) Causal modeling and inference; (5) Agent-based modeling; (6) Probabilistic programming; (7) Differentiable programming; (8) Open-ended optimization; (9) Machine programming. We believe coordinated efforts between motifs offers immense opportunity to accelerate scientific discovery, from solving inverse problems in synthetic biology and climate science, to directing nuclear energy experiments and predicting emergent behavior in socioeconomic settings. We elaborate on each layer of the SI-stack, detailing the state-of-art methods, presenting examples to highlight challenges and opportunities, and advocating for specific ways to advance the motifs and the synergies from their combinations. Advancing and integrating these technologies can enable a robust and efficient hypothesis-simulation-analysis type of scientific method, which we introduce with several use-cases for human-machine teaming and automated science.