If you are looking for an answer to the question What is Artificial Intelligence? and you only have a minute, then here's the definition the Association for the Advancement of Artificial Intelligence offers on its home page: "the scientific understanding of the mechanisms underlying thought and intelligent behavior and their embodiment in machines."
However, if you are fortunate enough to have more than a minute, then please get ready to embark upon an exciting journey exploring AI (but beware, it could last a lifetime) …
Khadke, Ashwin, Veloso, Manuela
When presented with an unknown robot (subject) how can an autonomous agent (learner) figure out what this new robot can do? The subject's appearance can provide cues to its physical as well as cognitive capabilities. Seeing a humanoid can make one wonder if it can kick balls, climb stairs or recognize faces. What if the learner can request the subject to perform these tasks? We present an approach to make the learner build a model of the subject at a task based on the latter's appearance and refine it by experimentation. Apart from the subject's inherent capabilities, certain extrinsic factors may affect its performance at a task. Based on the subject's appearance and prior knowledge about the task a learner can identify a set of potential factors, a subset of which we assume are controllable. Our approach picks values of controllable factors to generate the most informative experiments to test the subject at. Additionally, we present a metric to determine if a factor should be incorporated in the model. We present results of our approach on modeling a humanoid robot at the task of kicking a ball. Firstly, we show that actively picking values for controllable factors, even in noisy experiments, leads to faster learning of the subject's model for the task. Secondly, starting from a minimal set of factors our metric identifies the set of relevant factors to incorporate in the model. Lastly, we show that the refined model better represents the subject's performance at the task.
With the rapid development of robot and other intelligent and autonomous agents, how a human could be influenced by a robot's expressed mood when making decisions becomes a crucial question in human-robot interaction. In this pilot study, we investigate (1) in what way a robot can express a certain mood to influence a human's decision making behavioral model; (2) how and to what extent the human will be influenced in a game theoretic setting. More specifically, we create an NLP model to generate sentences that adhere to a specific affective expression profile. We use these sentences for a humanoid robot as it plays a Stackelberg security game against a human. We investigate the behavioral model of the human player.
With the success of deep learning, recent efforts have been focused on analyzing how learned networks make their classifications. We are interested in analyzing the network output based on the network structure and information flow through the network layers. We contribute an algorithm for 1) analyzing a deep network to find neurons that are 'important' in terms of the network classification outcome, and 2)automatically labeling the patches of the input image that activate these important neurons. We propose several measures of importance for neurons and demonstrate that our technique can be used to gain insight into, and explain how a network decomposes an image to make its final classification.
The predictive power of neural networks often costs model interpretability. Several techniques have been developed for explaining model outputs in terms of input features; however, it is difficult to translate such interpretations into actionable insight. Here, we propose a framework to analyze predictions in terms of the model's internal features by inspecting information flow through the network. Given a trained network and a test image, we select neurons by two metrics, both measured over a set of images created by perturbations to the input image: (1) magnitude of the correlation between the neuron activation and the network output and (2) precision of the neuron activation. We show that the former metric selects neurons that exert large influence over the network output while the latter metric selects neurons that activate on generalizable features. By comparing the sets of neurons selected by these two metrics, our framework suggests a way to investigate the internal attention mechanisms of convolutional neural networks.
This paper presents an online learning approach for teams of autonomous soccer robots to select free kick plans. In robot soccer, free kicks present an opportunity to execute plans with relatively controllable initial conditions. However, the effectiveness of each plan is highly dependent on the adversary, and there are few free kicks during each game, making it necessary to learn online from sparse observations. To achieve learning, we first greatly reduce the planning space by framing the problem as a contextual multi-armed bandit problem, in which the actions are a set of pre-computed plans, and the state is the position of the free kick on the field. During execution, we model the reward function for different free kicks using Gaussian Processes, and perform online learning using the Upper Confidence Bound algorithm. Results from a physics-based simulation reveal that the robots are capable of adapting to various different realistic opponents to maximize their expected reward during free kicks.
The World Wide Web (WWW) has become a rapidly growing platform consisting of numerous sources which provide supporting or contradictory information about claims (e.g., "Chicken meat is healthy"). In order to decide whether a claim is true or false, one needs to analyze content of different sources of information on the Web, measure credibility of information sources, and aggregate all these information. This is a tedious process and the Web search engines address only part of the overall problem, viz., producing only a list of relevant sources. In this paper, we present ClaimEval, a novel and integrated approach which given a set of claims to validate, extracts a set of pro and con arguments from the Web information sources, and jointly estimates credibility of sources and correctness of claims. ClaimEval uses Probabilistic Soft Logic (PSL), resulting in a flexible and principled framework which makes it easy to state and incorporate different forms of prior-knowledge. Through extensive experiments on real-world datasets, we demonstrate ClaimEval’s capability in determining validity of a set of claims, resulting in improved accuracy compared to state-of-the-art baselines.
Mendoza, Juan Pablo (Carnegie Mellon University) | Biswas, Joydeep (Carnegie Mellon University) | Cooksey, Philip (Carnegie Mellon University) | Wang, Richard (Carnegie Mellon University) | Klee, Steven (Carnegie Mellon University) | Zhu, Danny (Carnegie Mellon University) | Veloso, Manuela (Carnegie Mellon University)
CMDragons 2015 is the champion of the RoboCup Small Size League of autonomous robot soccer. The team won all of its six games, scoring a total of 48 goals and conceding 0. This unprecedented dominant performance is the result of various features, but we particularly credit our novel offense multi-robot coordination. This paper thus presents our Selectively Reactive Coordination (SRC) algorithm, consisting of two layers: A coordinated opponent-agnostic layer enables the team to create its own plans, setting the pace of the game in offense. An individual opponent-reactive action selection layer enables the robots to maintain reactivity to different opponents. We demonstrate the effectiveness of our coordination through results from RoboCup 2015, and through controlled experiments using a physics-based simulator and an automated referee.
When designing a robot to interact with people, the decision to incorporate a robot arm may arise. In this paper, we investigate adding an inexpensive, functional arm to our mobile CoBot service robots. Specifically, we examine two-dimensional extendable pantograph arms for CoBot. Pantograph arms have intuitive kinematics and inverse kinematics. Pantograph arms are modular and adding additional linkages corresponds to simple changes in the kinematic calculations. These arms have several advantages (and disadvantages) compared to traditional robot arms. A prototype pantograph arm is currently in development and our goal is to attach a modular pantograph arm to CoBot to perform simple needed tasks, such as knocking on doors and pressing elevator buttons.