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apk2vec: Semi-supervised multi-view representation learning for profiling Android applications

arXiv.org Machine Learning

Building behavior profiles of Android applications (apps) with holistic, rich and multi-view information (e.g., incorporating several semantic views of an app such as API sequences, system calls, etc.) would help catering downstream analytics tasks such as app categorization, recommendation and malware analysis significantly better. Towards this goal, we design a semi-supervised Representation Learning (RL) framework named apk2vec to automatically generate a compact representation (aka profile/embedding) for a given app. More specifically, apk2vec has the three following unique characteristics which make it an excellent choice for largescale app profiling: (1) it encompasses information from multiple semantic views such as API sequences, permissions, etc., (2) being a semi-supervised embedding technique, it can make use of labels associated with apps (e.g., malware family or app category labels) to build high quality app profiles, and (3) it combines RL and feature hashing which allows it to efficiently build profiles of apps that stream over time (i.e., online learning). The resulting semi-supervised multi-view hash embeddings of apps could then be used for a wide variety of downstream tasks such as the ones mentioned above. Our extensive evaluations with more than 42,000 apps demonstrate that apk2vec's app profiles could significantly outperform state-of-the-art techniques in four app analytics tasks namely, malware detection, familial clustering, app clone detection and app recommendation.


GANVO: Unsupervised Deep Monocular Visual Odometry and Depth Estimation with Generative Adversarial Networks

arXiv.org Machine Learning

In the last decade, supervised deep learning approaches have been extensively employed in visual odometry (VO) applications, which is not feasible in environments where labelled data is not abundant. On the other hand, unsupervised deep learning approaches for localization and mapping in unknown environments from unlabelled data have received comparatively less attention in VO research. In this study, we propose a generative unsupervised learning framework that predicts 6-DoF pose camera motion and monocular depth map of the scene from unlabelled RGB image sequences, using deep convolutional Generative Adversarial Networks (GANs). We create a supervisory signal by warping view sequences and assigning the re-projection minimization to the objective loss function that is adopted in multi-view pose estimation and single-view depth generation network. Detailed quantitative and qualitative evaluations of the proposed framework on the KITTI and Cityscapes datasets show that the proposed method outperforms both existing traditional and unsupervised deep VO methods providing better results for both pose estimation and depth recovery.


Mobility Mode Detection Using WiFi Signals

arXiv.org Machine Learning

We utilize Wi-Fi communications from smartphones to predict their mobility mode, i.e. walking, biking and driving. Wi-Fi sensors were deployed at four strategic locations in a closed loop on streets in downtown Toronto. Deep neural network (Multilayer Perceptron) along with three decision tree based classifiers (Decision Tree, Bagged Decision Tree and Random Forest) are developed. Results show that the best prediction accuracy is achieved by Multilayer Perceptron, with 86.52% correct predictions of mobility modes.


Modelling Latent Travel Behaviour Characteristics with Generative Machine Learning

arXiv.org Machine Learning

In this paper, we implement an information-theoretic approach to travel behaviour analysis by introducing a generative modelling framework to identify informative latent characteristics in travel decision making. It involves developing a joint tri-partite Bayesian graphical network model using a Restricted Boltzmann Machine (RBM) generative modelling framework. We apply this framework on a mode choice survey data to identify abstract latent variables and compare the performance with a traditional latent variable model with specific latent preferences -- safety, comfort, and environmental. Data collected from a joint stated and revealed preference mode choice survey in Quebec, Canada were used to calibrate the RBM model. Results show that a signficant impact on model likelihood statistics and suggests that machine learning tools are highly suitable for modelling complex networks of conditional independent behaviour interactions.


Alternate Estimation of a Classifier and the Class-Prior from Positive and Unlabeled Data

arXiv.org Machine Learning

We consider a problem of learning a binary classifier only from positive data and unlabeled data (PU learning) and estimating the class-prior in unlabeled data under the case-control scenario. Most of the recent methods of PU learning require an estimate of the class-prior probability in unlabeled data, and it is estimated in advance with another method. However, such a two-step approach which first estimates the class prior and then trains a classifier may not be the optimal approach since the estimation error of the class-prior is not taken into account when a classifier is trained. In this paper, we propose a novel unified approach to estimating the class-prior and training a classifier alternately. Our proposed method is simple to implement and computationally efficient. Through experiments, we demonstrate the practical usefulness of the proposed method.


Deep PDF: Probabilistic Surface Optimization and Density Estimation

arXiv.org Machine Learning

A probability density function (pdf) encodes the entire stochastic knowledge about data distribution, where data may represent stochastic observations in robotics, transition state pairs in reinforcement learning or any other empirically acquired modality. Inferring data pdf is of prime importance, allowing to analyze various model hypotheses and perform smart decision making. However, most density estimation techniques are limited in their representation expressiveness to specific kernel type or predetermined distribution family, and have other restrictions. For example, kernel density estimation (KDE) methods require meticulous parameter search and are extremely slow at querying new points. In this paper we present a novel non-parametric density estimation approach, DeepPDF, that uses a neural network to approximate a target pdf given samples from thereof. Such a representation provides high inference accuracy for a wide range of target pdfs using a relatively simple network structure, making our method highly statistically robust. This is done via a new stochastic optimization algorithm, \emph{Probabilistic Surface Optimization} (PSO), that turns to advantage the stochastic nature of sample points in order to force network output to be identical to the output of a target pdf. Once trained, query point evaluation can be efficiently done in DeepPDF by a simple network forward pass, with linear complexity in the number of query points. Moreover, the PSO algorithm is capable of inferring the frequency of data samples and may also be used in other statistical tasks such as conditional estimation and distribution transformation. We compare the derived approach with KDE methods showing its superior performance and accuracy.


Efficient Structured Surrogate Loss and Regularization in Structured Prediction

arXiv.org Machine Learning

In this dissertation, we focus on several important problems in structured prediction. In structured prediction, the label has a rich intrinsic substructure, and the loss varies with respect to the predicted label and the true label pair. Structured SVM is an extension of binary SVM to adapt to such structured tasks. In the first part of the dissertation, we study the surrogate losses and its efficient methods. To minimize the empirical risk, a surrogate loss which upper bounds the loss, is used as a proxy to minimize the actual loss. Since the objective function is written in terms of the surrogate loss, the choice of the surrogate loss is important, and the performance depends on it. Another issue regarding the surrogate loss is the efficiency of the argmax label inference for the surrogate loss. Efficient inference is necessary for the optimization since it is often the most time-consuming step. We present a new class of surrogate losses named bi-criteria surrogate loss, which is a generalization of the popular surrogate losses. We first investigate an efficient method for a slack rescaling formulation as a starting point utilizing decomposability of the model. Then, we extend the algorithm to the bi-criteria surrogate loss, which is very efficient and also shows performance improvements. In the second part of the dissertation, another important issue of regularization is studied. Specifically, we investigate a problem of regularization in hierarchical classification when a structural imbalance exists in the label structure. We present a method to normalize the structure, as well as a new norm, namely shared Frobenius norm. It is suitable for hierarchical classification that adapts to the data in addition to the label structure.


Non-iterative recomputation of dense layers for performance improvement of DCNN

arXiv.org Machine Learning

An iterative method of learning has become a paradigm for training deep convolutional neural networks (DCNN). However, utilizing a non-iterative learning strategy can accelerate the training process of the DCNN and surprisingly such approach has been rarely explored by the deep learning (DL) community. It motivates this paper to introduce a non-iterative learning strategy that eliminates the backpropagation (BP) at the top dense or fully connected (FC) layers of DCNN, resulting in, lower training time and higher performance. The proposed method exploits the Moore-Penrose Inverse to pull back the current residual error to each FC layer, generating well-generalized features. Then using the recomputed features, i.e., the new generalized features the weights of each FC layer is computed according to the Moore-Penrose Inverse. We evaluate the proposed approach on six widely accepted object recognition benchmark datasets: Scene-15, CIFAR-10, CIFAR-100, SUN-397, Places365, and ImageNet. The experimental results show that the proposed method obtains significant improvements over 30 state-of-the-art methods. Interestingly, it also indicates that any DCNN with the proposed method can provide better performance than the same network with its original training based on BP.


Towards Better Interpretability in Deep Q-Networks

arXiv.org Machine Learning

Deep reinforcement learning techniques have demonstrated superior performance in a wide variety of environments. As improvements in training algorithms continue at a brisk pace, theoretical or empirical studies on understanding what these networks seem to learn, are far behind. In this paper we propose an interpretable neural network architecture for Q-learning which provides a global explanation of the model's behavior using key-value memories, attention and reconstructible embeddings. With a directed exploration strategy, our model can reach training rewards comparable to the state-of-the-art deep Q-learning models. However, results suggest that the features extracted by the neural network are extremely shallow and subsequent testing using out-of-sample examples shows that the agent can easily overfit to trajectories seen during training.


Ensemble Clustering for Graphs

arXiv.org Machine Learning

We propose an ensemble clustering algorithm for graphs (ECG), which is based on the Louvain algorithm and the concept of consensus clustering. We validate our approach by replicating a recently published study comparing graph clustering algorithms over artificial networks, showing that ECG outperforms the leading algorithms from that study. We also illustrate how the ensemble obtained with ECG can be used to quantify the presence of community structure in the graph.