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A learning perspective on the emergence of abstractions: the curious case of phonemes

arXiv.org Machine Learning

In the present paper we use a range of modeling techniques to investigate whether an abstract phone could emerge from exposure to speech sounds. We test two opposing principles regarding the development of language knowledge in linguistically untrained language users: Memory-Based Learning (MBL) and Error-Correction Learning (ECL). A process of generalization underlies the abstractions linguists operate with, and we probed whether MBL and ECL could give rise to a type of language knowledge that resembles linguistic abstractions. Each model was presented with a significant amount of pre-processed speech produced by one speaker. We assessed the consistency or stability of what the models have learned and their ability to give rise to abstract categories. Both types of models fare differently with regard to these tests. We show that ECL learning models can learn abstractions and that at least part of the phone inventory can be reliably identified from the input.


Maximum Entropy competes with Maximum Likelihood

arXiv.org Machine Learning

Maximum entropy (MAXENT) method has a large number of applications in theoretical and applied machine learning, since it provides a convenient non-parametric tool for estimating unknown probabilities. The method is a major contribution of statistical physics to probabilistic inference. However, a systematic approach towards its validity limits is currently missing. Here we study MAXENT in a Bayesian decision theory set-up, i.e. assuming that there exists a well-defined prior Dirichlet density for unknown probabilities, and that the average Kullback-Leibler (KL) distance can be employed for deciding on the quality and applicability of various estimators. These allow to evaluate the relevance of various MAXENT constraints, check its general applicability, and compare MAXENT with estimators having various degrees of dependence on the prior, viz. the regularized maximum likelihood (ML) and the Bayesian estimators. We show that MAXENT applies in sparse data regimes, but needs specific types of prior information. In particular, MAXENT can outperform the optimally regularized ML provided that there are prior rank correlations between the estimated random quantity and its probabilities.


Efficient CNN-LSTM based Image Captioning using Neural Network Compression

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

Modern Neural Networks are eminent in achieving state of the art performance on tasks under Computer Vision, Natural Language Processing and related verticals. However, they are notorious for their voracious memory and compute appetite which further obstructs their deployment on resource limited edge devices. In order to achieve edge deployment, researchers have developed pruning and quantization algorithms to compress such networks without compromising their efficacy. Such compression algorithms are broadly experimented on standalone CNN and RNN architectures while in this work, we present an unconventional end to end compression pipeline of a CNN-LSTM based Image Captioning model. The model is trained using VGG16 or ResNet50 as an encoder and an LSTM decoder on the flickr8k dataset. We then examine the effects of different compression architectures on the model and design a compression architecture that achieves a 73.1% reduction in model size, 71.3% reduction in inference time and a 7.7% increase in BLEU score as compared to its uncompressed counterpart.


Rank-One Measurements of Low-Rank PSD Matrices Have Small Feasible Sets

arXiv.org Machine Learning

We study the role of the constraint set in determining the solution to low-rank, positive semidefinite (PSD) matrix sensing problems. The setting we consider involves rank-one sensing matrices: In particular, given a set of rank-one projections of an approximately low-rank PSD matrix, we characterize the radius of the set of PSD matrices that satisfy the measurements. This result yields a sampling rate to guarantee singleton solution sets when the true matrix is exactly low-rank, such that the choice of the objective function or the algorithm to be used is inconsequential in its recovery. We discuss applications of this contribution and compare it to recent literature regarding implicit regularization for similar problems. We demonstrate practical implications of this result by applying conic projection methods for PSD matrix recovery without incorporating low-rank regularization.


Stochastic Gradient Descent with Large Learning Rate

arXiv.org Machine Learning

As a simple and efficient optimization method in deep learning, stochastic gradient descent (SGD) has attracted tremendous attention. In the vanishing learning rate regime, SGD is now relatively well understood, and the majority of theoretical approaches to SGD set their assumptions in the continuous-time limit. However, the continuous-time predictions are unlikely to reflect the experimental observations well because the practice often runs in the large learning rate regime, where the training is faster and the generalization of models are often better. In this paper, we propose to study the basic properties of SGD and its variants in the non-vanishing learning rate regime. The focus is on deriving exactly solvable results and relating them to experimental observations. The main contributions of this work are to derive the stable distribution for discrete-time SGD in a quadratic loss function with and without momentum. Examples of applications of the proposed theory considered in this work include the approximation error of variants of SGD, the effect of mini-batch noise, the escape rate from a sharp minimum, and and the stationary distribution of a few second order methods.


On the experimental feasibility of quantum state reconstruction via machine learning

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

We determine the resource scaling of machine learning-based quantum state reconstruction methods, in terms of both inference and training, for systems of up to four qubits. Further, we examine system performance in the low-count regime, likely to be encountered in the tomography of high-dimensional systems. Finally, we implement our quantum state reconstruction method on a IBM Q quantum computer and confirm our results.


Model-free and Bayesian Ensembling Model-based Deep Reinforcement Learning for Particle Accelerator Control Demonstrated on the FERMI FEL

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

Reinforcement learning holds tremendous promise in accelerator controls. The primary goal of this paper is to show how this approach can be utilised on an operational level on accelerator physics problems. Despite the success of model-free reinforcement learning in several domains, sample-efficiency still is a bottle-neck, which might be encompassed by model-based methods. We compare well-suited purely model-based to model-free reinforcement learning applied to the intensity optimisation on the FERMI FEL system. We find that the model-based approach demonstrates higher representational power and sample-efficiency, while the asymptotic performance of the model-free method is slightly superior. The model-based algorithm is implemented in a DYNA-style using an uncertainty aware model, and the model-free algorithm is based on tailored deep Q-learning. In both cases, the algorithms were implemented in a way, which presents increased noise robustness as omnipresent in accelerator control problems. Code is released in https://github.com/MathPhysSim/FERMI_RL_Paper.


High-Throughput Synchronous Deep RL

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

Deep reinforcement learning (RL) is computationally demanding and requires processing of many data points. Synchronous methods enjoy training stability while having lower data throughput. In contrast, asynchronous methods achieve high throughput but suffer from stability issues and lower sample efficiency due to `stale policies.' To combine the advantages of both methods we propose High-Throughput Synchronous Deep Reinforcement Learning (HTS-RL). In HTS-RL, we perform learning and rollouts concurrently, devise a system design which avoids `stale policies' and ensure that actors interact with environment replicas in an asynchronous manner while maintaining full determinism. We evaluate our approach on Atari games and the Google Research Football environment. Compared to synchronous baselines, HTS-RL is 2-6$\times$ faster. Compared to state-of-the-art asynchronous methods, HTS-RL has competitive throughput and consistently achieves higher average episode rewards.


Game-theoretic Models of Moral and Other-Regarding Agents

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

We investigate Kantian equilibria in finite normal form games, a class of non-Nashian, morally motivated courses of action that was recently proposed in the economics literature. We highlight a number of problems with such equilibria, including computational intractability, a high price of miscoordination, and expensive/problematic extension to general normal form games. We point out that such a proper generalization will likely involve the concept of program equilibrium. Finally we propose some general, intuitive, computationally tractable, other-regarding equilibria related to Kantian equilibria, as well as a class of courses of action that interpolates between purely self-regarding and Kantian behavior.


Hardness of Learning Halfspaces with Massart Noise

arXiv.org Machine Learning

We study the complexity of PAC learning halfspaces in the presence of Massart (bounded) noise. Specifically, given labeled examples $(x, y)$ from a distribution $D$ on $\mathbb{R}^{n} \times \{ \pm 1\}$ such that the marginal distribution on $x$ is arbitrary and the labels are generated by an unknown halfspace corrupted with Massart noise at rate $\eta<1/2$, we want to compute a hypothesis with small misclassification error. Characterizing the efficient learnability of halfspaces in the Massart model has remained a longstanding open problem in learning theory. Recent work gave a polynomial-time learning algorithm for this problem with error $\eta+\epsilon$. This error upper bound can be far from the information-theoretically optimal bound of $\mathrm{OPT}+\epsilon$. More recent work showed that {\em exact learning}, i.e., achieving error $\mathrm{OPT}+\epsilon$, is hard in the Statistical Query (SQ) model. In this work, we show that there is an exponential gap between the information-theoretically optimal error and the best error that can be achieved by a polynomial-time SQ algorithm. In particular, our lower bound implies that no efficient SQ algorithm can approximate the optimal error within any polynomial factor.