Machine Learning

Stochastic Channel-Based Federated Learning for Medical Data Privacy Preserving Machine Learning

Artificial neural network has achieved unprecedented success in the medical domain. This success depends on the availability of massive and representative datasets. However, data collection is often prevented by privacy concerns and people want to take control over their sensitive information during both training and using processes. To address this problem, we propose a privacy-preserving method for the distributed system, Stochastic Channel-Based Federated Learning (SCBF), which enables the participants to train a high-performance model cooperatively without sharing their inputs. Specifically, we design, implement and evaluate a channel-based update algorithm for the central server in a distributed system, which selects the channels with regard to the most active features in a training loop and uploads them as learned information from local datasets. A pruning process is applied to the algorithm based on the validation set, which serves as a model accelerator. In the experiment, our model presents better performances and higher saturating speed than the Federated Averaging method which reveals all the parameters of local models to the server when updating. We also demonstrate that the saturating rate of performance could be promoted by introducing a pruning process. And further improvement could be achieved by tuning the pruning rate. Our experiment shows that 57% of the time is saved by the pruning process with only a reduction of 0.0047 in AUCROC performance and a reduction of 0.0068 in AUCPR.

High dimensional regression for regenerative time-series: an application to road traffic modeling Machine Learning

This paper investigates statistical models for road traffic modeling. The proposed methodology considers road traffic as a (i) highdimensional time-series for which (ii) regeneration occurs at the end of each day. Since (ii), prediction is based on a daily modeling of the road traffic using a vector autoregressive model that combines linearly the past observations of the day. Considering (i), the learning algorithm follows from an l1-penalization of the regression coefficients. Excess risk bounds are established under the high-dimensional framework in which the number of road sections goes to infinity with the number of observed days. Considering floating car data observed in an urban area, the approach is compared to state-of-the-art methods including neural networks. In addition of being very competitive in terms of prediction, it enables to identify the most determinant sections of the road network.

Learning from both experts and data Machine Learning

In this work we study the problem of inferring a discrete probability distribution using both expert knowledge and empirical data. This is an important issue for many applications where the scarcity of data prevents a purely empirical approach. In this context, it is common to rely first on an initial domain knowledge a priori before proceeding to an online data acquisition. We are particularly interested in the intermediate regime where we do not have enough data to do without the initial expert a priori of the experts, but enough to correct it if necessary. We present here a novel way to tackle this issue with a method providing an objective way to choose the weight to be given to experts compared to data. We show, both empirically and theoretically, that our proposed estimator is always more efficient than the best of the two models (expert or data) within a constant.

On Connections between Constrained Optimization and Reinforcement Learning Machine Learning

Dynamic Programming (DP) provides standard algorithms to solve Markov Decision Processes. However, these algorithms generally do not optimize a scalar objective function. In this paper, we draw connections between DP and (constrained) convex optimization. Specifically, we show clear links in the algorithmic structure between three DP schemes and optimization algorithms. We link Conservative Policy Iteration to Frank-Wolfe, Mirror-Descent Modified Policy Iteration to Mirror Descent, and Politex (Policy Iteration Using Expert Prediction) to Dual Averaging. These abstract DP schemes are representative of a number of (deep) Reinforcement Learning (RL) algorithms. By highlighting these connections (most of which have been noticed earlier, but in a scattered way), we would like to encourage further studies linking RL and convex optimization, that could lead to the design of new, more efficient, and better understood RL algorithms.

PRNet: Self-Supervised Learning for Partial-to-Partial Registration Machine Learning

We present a simple, flexible, and general framework titled Partial Registration Network (PRNet), for partial-to-partial point cloud registration. Inspired by recently-proposed learning-based methods for registration, we use deep networks to tackle non-convexity of the alignment and partial correspondence problems. While previous learning-based methods assume the entire shape is visible, PRNet is suitable for partial-to-partial registration, outperforming PointNetLK, DCP, and non-learning methods on synthetic data. PRNet is self-supervised, jointly learning an appropriate geometric representation, a keypoint detector that finds points in common between partial views, and keypoint-to-keypoint correspondences. We show PRNet predicts keypoints and correspondences consistently across views and objects. Furthermore, the learned representation is transferable to classification.

How noise affects the Hessian spectrum in overparameterized neural networks Machine Learning

Stochastic gradient descent (SGD) forms the core optimization method for deep neural networks. While some theoretical progress has been made, it still remains unclear why SGD leads the learning dynamics in overparameterized networks to solutions that generalize well. Here we show that for overparameterized networks with a degenerate valley in their loss landscape, SGD on average decreases the trace of the Hessian of the loss. We also generalize this result to other noise structures and show that isotropic noise in the non-degenerate subspace of the Hessian decreases its determinant. In addition to explaining SGDs role in sculpting the Hessian spectrum, this opens the door to new optimization approaches that may confer better generalization performance. We test our results with experiments on toy models and deep neural networks.

E2-Train: Energy-Efficient Deep Network Training with Data-, Model-, and Algorithm-Level Saving Machine Learning

Convolutional neural networks (CNNs) have been increasingly deployed to edge devices. Hence, many efforts have been made towards efficient CNN inference on resource-constrained platforms. This paper attempts to explore an orthogonal direction: how to conduct more energy-efficient training of CNNs, so as to enable on-device training? We strive to reduce the energy cost during training, by dropping unnecessary computations, from three complementary levels: stochastic mini-batch dropping on the data level; selective layer update on the model level; and sign prediction for low-cost, low-precision back-propagation, on the algorithm level. Extensive simulations and ablation studies, with real energy measurements from an FPGA board, confirm the superiority of our proposed strategies and demonstrate remarkable energy savings for training. For example, when training ResNet-74 on CIFAR-10, we achieve aggressive energy savings of >90% and >60%, while incurring a top-1 accuracy loss of only about 2% and 1.2%, respectively. When training ResNet-110 on CIFAR-100, an over 84% training energy saving is achieved without degrading inference accuracy.

Machine Learning-Based Analysis of Sperm Videos and Participant Data for Male Fertility Prediction Machine Learning

Methods for automatic analysis of clinical data are usually targeted towards a specific modality and do not make use of all relevant data available. In the field of male human reproduction, clinical and biological data are not used to its fullest potential. Manual evaluation of a semen sample using a microscope is time-consuming and requires extensive training. Furthermore, the validity of manual semen analysis has been questioned due to limited reproducibility, and often high inter-personnel variation. The existing computer-aided sperm analyzer systems are not recommended for routine clinical use due to methodological challenges caused by the consistency of the semen sample. Thus, there is a need for an improved methodology. We use modern and classical machine learning techniques together with a dataset consisting of 85 videos of human semen samples and related participant data to automatically predict sperm motility. Used techniques include simple linear regression and more sophisticated methods using convolutional neural networks. Our results indicate that sperm motility prediction based on deep learning using sperm motility videos is rapid to perform and consistent. The algorithms performed worse when participant data was added. In conclusion, machine learning-based automatic analysis may become a valuable tool in male infertility investigation and research.

Gait Event Detection in Tibial Acceleration Profiles: a Structured Learning Approach Machine Learning

Analysis of runner's data will often examine gait variables with reference to one or more gait events. Two such representative events are the initial contact and toe off events. These correspond respectively to the moments in time when the foot makes the initial contact with the ground and when the foot leaves the ground again. These variables are traditionally measured with a force plate or motion capture system in a lab setting. However, thanks to recent evolutions in wearable technology, the use of accelerometers has become commonplace for prolonged outdoor measurements. Previous research has developed heuristic methods to identify the initial contact and toe off timings based on minima, maxima and thresholds in the acceleration profiles. A significant flaw of these heuristic-based methods is that they are tailored to very specific acceleration profiles, providing no guidelines on how to handle deviant profiles. Therefore, we frame the problem as a structured prediction task and propose a machine learning approach for determining initial foot contact and toe off events from 3D tibial acceleration profiles. With mean absolute errors of 2 ms and 4 ms for respectively the initial contact and toe-off events, our method significantly outperforms the existing heuristic approaches.

Modelling heterogeneous distributions with an Uncountable Mixture of Asymmetric Laplacians Machine Learning

In regression tasks, aleatoric uncertainty is commonly addressed by considering a parametric distribution of the output variable, which is based on strong assumptions such as symmetry, unimodality or by supposing a restricted shape. These assumptions are too limited in scenarios where complex shapes, strong skews or multiple modes are present. In this paper, we propose a generic deep learning framework that learns an Uncountable Mixture of Asymmetric Laplacians (UMAL), which will allow us to estimate heterogeneous distributions of the output variable and shows its connections to quantile regression. Despite having a fixed number of parameters, the model can be interpreted as an infinite mixture of components, which yields a flexible approximation for heterogeneous distributions. Apart from synthetic cases, we apply this model to room price forecasting and to predict financial operations in personal bank accounts. We demonstrate that UMAL produces proper distributions, which allows us to extract richer insights and to sharpen decision-making.