Collaborating Authors Machine Learning

Performance Optimization of a Fuzzy Entropy based Feature Selection and Classification Framework Machine Learning

In this paper, based on a fuzzy entropy feature selection framework, different methods have been implemented and compared to improve the key components of the framework. Those methods include the combinations of three ideal vector calculations, three maximal similarity classifiers and three fuzzy entropy functions. Different feature removal orders based on the fuzzy entropy values were also compared. The proposed method was evaluated on three publicly available biomedical datasets. From the experiments, we concluded the optimized combination of the ideal vector, similarity classifier and fuzzy entropy function for feature selection. The optimized framework was also compared with other six classical filter-based feature selection methods. The proposed method was ranked as one of the top performers together with the Correlation and ReliefF methods. More importantly, the proposed method achieved the most stable performance for all three datasets when the features being gradually removed. This indicates a better feature ranking performance than the other compared methods.

A Novel Weighted Combination Method for Feature Selection using Fuzzy Sets Machine Learning

In this paper, we propose a novel weighted combination feature selection method using bootstrap and fuzzy sets. The proposed method mainly consists of three processes, including fuzzy sets generation using bootstrap, weighted combination of fuzzy sets and feature ranking based on defuzzification. We implemented the proposed method by combining four state-of-the-art feature selection methods and evaluated the performance based on three publicly available biomedical datasets using five-fold cross validation. Based on the feature selection results, our proposed method produced comparable (if not better) classification accuracies to the best of the individual feature selection methods for all evaluated datasets. More importantly, we also applied standard deviation and Pearson's correlation to measure the stability of the methods. Remarkably, our combination method achieved significantly higher stability than the four individual methods when variations and size reductions were introduced to the datasets.

Simple, Scalable, and Stable Variational Deep Clustering Machine Learning

Deep clustering (DC) has become the state-of-the-art for unsupervised clustering. In principle, DC represents a variety of unsupervised methods that jointly learn the underlying clusters and the latent representation directly from unstructured datasets. However, DC methods are generally poorly applied due to high operational costs, low scalability, and unstable results. In this paper, we first evaluate several popular DC variants in the context of industrial applicability using eight empirical criteria. We then choose to focus on variational deep clustering (VDC) methods, since they mostly meet those criteria except for simplicity, scalability, and stability. To address these three unmet criteria, we introduce four generic algorithmic improvements: initial $\gamma$-training, periodic $\beta$-annealing, mini-batch GMM (Gaussian mixture model) initialization, and inverse min-max transform. We also propose a novel clustering algorithm S3VDC (simple, scalable, and stable VDC) that incorporates all those improvements. Our experiments show that S3VDC outperforms the state-of-the-art on both benchmark tasks and a large unstructured industrial dataset without any ground truth label. In addition, we analytically evaluate the usability and interpretability of S3VDC.

Automated Copper Alloy Grain Size Evaluation Using a Deep-learning CNN Machine Learning

Moog Inc. has automated the evaluation of copper (Cu) alloy grain size using a deep-learning convolutional neural network (CNN). The proof-of-concept automated image acquisition and batch-wise image processing offers the potential for significantly reduced labor, improved accuracy of grain evaluation, and decreased overall turnaround times for approving Cu alloy bar stock for use in flight critical aircraft hardware. A classification accuracy of 91.1% on individual sub-images of the Cu alloy coupons was achieved. Process development included minimizing the variation in acquired image color, brightness, and resolution to create a dataset with 12300 sub-images, and then optimizing the CNN hyperparameters on this dataset using statistical design of experiments (DoE). Over the development of the automated Cu alloy grain size evaluation, a degree of "explainability" in the artificial intelligence (XAI) output was realized, based on the decomposition of the large raw images into many smaller dataset sub-images, through the ability to explain the CNN ensemble image output via inspection of the classification results from the individual smaller sub-images.

Accounting for Input Noise in Gaussian Process Parameter Retrieval Machine Learning

Gaussian processes (GPs) are a class of Kernel methods that have shown to be very useful in geoscience and remote sensing applications for parameter retrieval, model inversion, and emulation. They are widely used because they are simple, flexible, and provide accurate estimates. GPs are based on a Bayesian statistical framework which provides a posterior probability function for each estimation. Therefore, besides the usual prediction (given in this case by the mean function), GPs come equipped with the possibility to obtain a predictive variance (i.e., error bars, confidence intervals) for each prediction. Unfortunately, the GP formulation usually assumes that there is no noise in the inputs, only in the observations. However, this is often not the case in earth observation problems where an accurate assessment of the measuring instrument error is typically available, and where there is huge interest in characterizing the error propagation through the processing pipeline. In this letter, we demonstrate how one can account for input noise estimates using a GP model formulation which propagates the error terms using the derivative of the predictive mean function. We analyze the resulting predictive variance term and show how they more accurately represent the model error in a temperature prediction problem from infrared sounding data.

Early Classification of Time Series. Cost-based Optimization Criterion and Algorithms Machine Learning

An increasing number of applications require to recognize the class of an incoming time series as quickly as possible without unduly compromising the accuracy of the prediction. In this paper, we put forward a new optimization criterion which takes into account both the cost of misclassification and the cost of delaying the decision. Based on this optimization criterion, we derived a family of non-myopic algorithms which try to anticipate the expected future gain in information in balance with the cost of waiting. In one class of algorithms, unsupervised-based, the expectations use the clustering of time series, while in a second class, supervised-based, time series are grouped according to the confidence level of the classifier used to label them. Extensive experiments carried out on real data sets using a large range of delay cost functions show that the presented algorithms are able to satisfactorily solving the earliness vs. accuracy trade-off, with the supervised-based approaches faring better than the unsupervised-based ones. In addition, all these methods perform better in a wide variety of conditions than a state of the art method based on a myopic strategy which is recognized as very competitive.

ReLU Code Space: A Basis for Rating Network Quality Besides Accuracy Machine Learning

We propose a new metric space of ReLU activation codes equipped with a truncated Hamming distance which establishes an isometry between its elements and polyhedral bodies in the input space which have recently been shown to be strongly related to safety, robustness, and confidence. This isometry allows the efficient computation of adjacency relations between the polyhedral bodies. Experiments on MNIST and CIFAR-10 indicate that information besides accuracy might be stored in the code space.

Model Repair: Robust Recovery of Over-Parameterized Statistical Models Machine Learning

Traditional robust estimation assumes that the data are corrupted, and studies methods of estimation that are immune to these corruptions or outliers in the data. In contrast, we explore the setting where the data are "clean" but a statistical model is corrupted after it has been estimated using the data. We study methods for recovering the model that do not require re-estimation from scratch, using only the design and not the original response values. The problem of model repair is motivated from several different perspectives. First, it can be formulated as a well-defined statistical problem that is closely related to, but different from, traditional robust estimation, and that deserves study in its own right. From a more practical perspective, modern machine learning practice is increasingly working with very large statistical models. For example, artificial neural networks having several million parameters are now routinely estimated. It is anticipated that neural networks having trillions of parameters will be built in the coming years, and that large models will be increasingly embedded in systems, where they may be subject to errors and corruption of the parameter values. In this setting, the maintenance of models in a fault tolerant manner becomes a concern.

Neural Lyapunov Control Machine Learning

We propose new methods for learning control policies and neural network Lyapunov functions for nonlinear control problems, with provable guarantee of stability. The framework consists of a learner that attempts to find the control and Lyapunov functions, and a falsifier that finds counterexamples to quickly guide the learner towards solutions. The procedure terminates when no counterexample is found by the falsifier, in which case the controlled nonlinear system is provably stable. The approach significantly simplifies the process of Lyapunov control design, provides end-to-end correctness guarantee, and can obtain much larger regions of attraction than existing methods such as LQR and SOS/SDP. We show experiments on how the new methods obtain high-quality solutions for challenging control problems.

Reinforcement Learning for Variable Selection in a Branch and Bound Algorithm Machine Learning

Mixed integer linear programs are commonly solved by Branch and Bound algorithms. A key factor of the efficiency of the most successful commercial solvers is their fine-tuned heuristics. In this paper, we leverage patterns in real-world instances to learn from scratch a new branching strategy optimised for a given problem and compare it with a commercial solver. We propose FMSTS, a novel Reinforcement Learning approach specifically designed for this task. The strength of our method lies in the consistency between a local value function and a global metric of interest. In addition, we provide insights for adapting known RL techniques to the Branch and Bound setting, and present a new neural network architecture inspired from the literature. To our knowledge, it is the first time Reinforcement Learning has been used to fully optimise the branching strategy. Computational experiments show that our method is appropriate and able to generalise well to new instances.