Keren, Sarah


Reports of the Workshops of the Thirty-First AAAI Conference on Artificial Intelligence

AI Magazine

Reports of the Workshops of the Thirty-First AAAI Conference on Artificial Intelligence


Redesigning Stochastic Environments for Maximized Utility

AAAI Conferences

​We present the Utility Maximizing Design (UMD) model​ for optimally redesigning stochastic environments to achieve maximized performance. This model suits well contemporary ​​applications that involve the design of environments where robots and humans co-exist an co-operate, e.g., vacuum cleaning robot. We discuss two special cases of the UMD model. The first is the equi-reward UMD (ER-UMD)​ ​in which the agents and the system share a utility function, such as for the vacuum cleaning robot. The second is the goal​ ​recognition design (GRD) setting, discussed in the literature, in which system and agent utilities are independent. To find the set of optimal​​ modifications to apply to a UMD model, we propose the use of heuristic search, extending previous methods used for GRD settings. After specifying the conditions for optimality in the​ general case, we present an admissible heuristic for the ER-UMD case. We also present a novel compilation that embeds​ the redesign process into a planning problem, allowing use of any off-the-shelf solver to find the best way to modify an environment when a design budget is specified. Our evaluation shows the feasibility of the approach using standard bench​​marks from the probabilistic planning competition.​


Redesigning Stochastic Environments for Maximized Utility

AAAI Conferences

We present the Utility Maximizing Design (UMD) model for optimally redesigning stochastic environments to achieve maximized performance. This model suits well contemporary applications that involve the design of environments where robots and humans co-exist an co-operate, e.g., vacuum cleaning robot. We discuss two special cases of the UMD model. The first is the equi-reward UMD (ER-UMD) in which the agents and the system share a utility function, such as for the vacuum cleaning robot. The second is the goal recognition design (GRD) setting, discussed in the literature, in which system and agent utilities are independent. To find the set of optimal modifications to apply to a UMD model, we present a generic method, based on heuristic search. After specifying the conditions for optimality in the general case, we present an admissible heuristic for the ER-UMD case. We also present a novel compilation that embeds the redesign process into a planning problem, allowing use of any off-the-shelf solver to find the best way to modify an environment when a design budget is specified. Our evaluation shows the feasibility of the approach using standard benchmarks from the probabilistic planning competition.


Goal Recognition Design with Non-Observable Actions

AAAI Conferences

Goal recognition design involves the offline analysis of goal recognition models by formulating measures that assess the ability to perform goal recognition within a model and finding efficient ways to compute and optimize them. In this work we relax the full observability assumption of earlier work by offering a new generalized model for goal recognition design with non-observable actions. A model with partial observability is relevant to goal recognition applications such as assisted cognition and security, which suffer from reduced observability due to sensor malfunction or lack of sufficient budget. In particular we define a worst case distinctiveness (wcd) measure that represents the maximal number of steps an agent can take in a system before the observed portion of his trajectory reveals his objective. We present a method for calculating wcd based on a novel compilation to classical planning and propose a method to improve the design using sensor placement. Our empirical evaluation shows that the proposed solutions effectively compute and improve wcd.


Goal Recognition Design for Non-Optimal Agents

AAAI Conferences

Goal recognition design involves the offline analysis of goal recognition models by formulating measures that assess the ability to perform goal recognition within a model and finding efficient ways to compute and optimize them. In this work we present goal recognition design for non-optimal agents, which extends previous work by accounting for agents that behave non-optimally either intentionally or naıvely. The analysis we present includes a new generalized model for goal recognition design and the worst case distinctiveness (wcd) measure. For two special cases of sub-optimal agents we present methods for calculating the wcd, part of which are based on novel compilations to classical planning problems. Our empirical evaluation shows the proposed solutions to be effective in computing and optimizing the wcd.


Goal Recognition Design

AAAI Conferences

We propose a new problem we refer to as goal recognitiondesign ( grd) , in which we take a domain theory and a set ofgoals and ask the following questions: to what extent do theactions performed by an agent within the model reveal its objective, and what is the best way to modify a model so thatany agent acting in the model reveals its objective as early aspossible. Our contribution is the introduction of a new measure we call worst case distinctiveness ( wcd ) with which weassess a  grd model. The  wcd represents the maximal lengthof a prefix of an optimal path an agent may take within a system before it becomes clear at which goal it is aiming. Tomodel and solve the  grd problem we choose to use the models and tools from the closely related field of automated planning. We present two methods for calculating the  wcd of a grd model, one of which is based on a novel compilation to aclassical planning problem. We then propose a way to reducethe  wcd of a model by limiting the set of available actions anagent can perform and provide a method for calculating theoptimal set of actions to be removed from the model. Our empirical evaluation shows the proposed solution to be effectivein computing and minimizing  wcd .