If you are looking for an answer to the question What is Artificial Intelligence? and you only have a minute, then here's the definition the Association for the Advancement of Artificial Intelligence offers on its home page: "the scientific understanding of the mechanisms underlying thought and intelligent behavior and their embodiment in machines."
However, if you are fortunate enough to have more than a minute, then please get ready to embark upon an exciting journey exploring AI (but beware, it could last a lifetime) …
Recently, a team of researchers from Facebook AI and Tel Aviv University proposed an AI system that solves the multiple-choice intelligence test, Raven's Progressive Matrices. The proposed AI system is a neural network model that combines multiple advances in generative models, including employing multiple pathways through the same network. Raven's Progressive Matrices, also known as Raven's Matrices, are multiple-choice intelligence tests. The test is used to measure abstract reasoning and is regarded as a non-verbal estimate of fluid intelligence. In this test, a person tries to finish the missing location in a 3X3 grid of abstract images.
We consider the abstract relational reasoning task, which is commonly used as an intelligence test. Since some patterns have spatial rationales, while others are only semantic, we propose a multi-scale architecture that processes each query in multiple resolutions. We show that indeed different rules are solved by different resolutions and a combined multi-scale approach outperforms the existing state of the art in this task on all benchmarks by 5-54%. The success of our method is shown to arise from multiple novelties. First, it searches for relational patterns in multiple resolutions, which allows it to readily detect visual relations, such as location, in higher resolution, while allowing the lower resolution module to focus on semantic relations, such as shape type. Second, we optimize the reasoning network of each resolution proportionally to its performance, hereby we motivate each resolution to specialize on the rules for which it performs better than the others and ignore cases that are already solved by the other resolutions. Third, we propose a new way to pool information along the rows and the columns of the illustration-grid of the query. Our work also analyses the existing benchmarks, demonstrating that the RAVEN dataset selects the negative examples in a way that is easily exploited. We, therefore, propose a modified version of the RAVEN dataset, named RAVEN-FAIR. Our code and pretrained models are available at https://github.com/yanivbenny/MRNet. The dataset of RAVEN-FAIR is available at https://github.com/yanivbenny/RAVEN_FAIR.
Relying on last year's weather to predict this year's power outages is an increasingly risky proposition. Climate change is shifting weather patterns in every region, increasing the frequency and severity of storms, wind, and drought. For example, in the wake of the recent tropical storm Isaias, Con Edison suffered its second-largest outage ever, mainly due to damage from trees in high winds. According to Con Ed: "The storm's gusting winds shoved trees and branches onto power lines, bringing those lines and other equipment down and leaving 257,000 customers out of power. The destruction surpassed Hurricane Irene, which caused 204,000 customer outages in August 2011."
Abstract visual reasoning connects mental abilities to the physical world, which is a crucial factor in cognitive development. Most toddlers display sensitivity to this skill, but it is not easy for machines. Aimed at it, we focus on the Raven Progressive Matrices Test, designed to measure cognitive reasoning. Recent work designed some black-boxes to solve it in an end-to-end fashion, but they are incredibly complicated and difficult to explain. Inspired by cognitive studies, we propose a Multi-Granularity Modularized Network (MMoN) to bridge the gap between the processing of raw sensory information and symbolic reasoning. Specifically, it learns modularized reasoning functions to model the semantic rule from the visual grounding in a neuro-symbolic and semi-supervision way. To comprehensively evaluate MMoN, our experiments are conducted on the dataset of both seen and unseen reasoning rules. The result shows that MMoN is well suited for abstract visual reasoning and also explainable on the generalization test.
In this work, we focus on an analogical reasoning task that contains rich compositional structures, Raven's Progressive Matrices (RPM). To discover compositional structures of the data, we propose the Scattering Compositional Learner (SCL), an architecture that composes neural networks in a sequence. Our SCL achieves state-of-the-art performance on two RPM datasets, with a 48.7% relative improvement on Balanced-RAVEN and 26.4% on PGM over the previous state-of-the-art. We additionally show that our model discovers compositional representations of objects' attributes (e.g., shape color, size), and their relationships (e.g., progression, union). We also find that the compositional representation makes the SCL significantly more robust to test-time domain shifts and greatly improves zero-shot generalization to previously unseen analogies.
Combining symbolic and neural approaches has gained considerable attention in the AI community, as it is often argued that the strengths and weaknesses of these approaches are complementary. One such trend in the literature are weakly supervised learning techniques that employ operators from fuzzy logics. In particular, they use prior background knowledge described in such logics to help the training of a neural network from unlabeled and noisy data. By interpreting logical symbols using neural networks (or grounding them), this background knowledge can be added to regular loss functions, hence making reasoning a part of learning. In this paper, we investigate how implications from the fuzzy logic literature behave in a differentiable setting. In such a setting, we analyze the differences between the formal properties of these fuzzy implications. It turns out that various fuzzy implications, including some of the most well-known, are highly unsuitable for use in a differentiable learning setting. A further finding shows a strong imbalance between gradients driven by the antecedent and the consequent of the implication. Furthermore, we introduce a new family of fuzzy implications (called sigmoidal implications) to tackle this phenomenon. Finally, we empirically show that it is possible to use Differentiable Fuzzy Logics for semi-supervised learning, and show that sigmoidal implications outperform other choices of fuzzy implications.
Raven's Progressive Matrices are a benchmark originally designed to test the cognitive abilities of humans. It has recently been adapted to test relational reasoning in machine learning systems. For this purpose the so-called Procedurally Generated Matrices dataset was set up, which is so far one of the most difficult relational reasoning benchmarks. Here we show that deep neural networks are capable of solving this benchmark, reaching an accuracy of 98.0 percent over the previous state-of-the-art of 62.6 percent by combining Wild Relation Networks with Multi-Layer Relation Networks and introducing Magnitude Encoding, an encoding scheme designed for late fusion architectures.
Abstract reasoning refers to the ability to analyze information, discover rules at an intangible level, and solve problems in innovative ways. Raven's Progressive Matrices (RPM) test is typically used to examine the capability of abstract reasoning. In the test, the subject is asked to identify the correct choice from the answer set to fill the missing panel at the bottom right of RPM (e.g., a 3$\times$3 matrix), following the underlying rules inside the matrix. Recent studies, taking advantage of Convolutional Neural Networks (CNNs), have achieved encouraging progress to accomplish the RPM test problems. Unfortunately, simply relying on the relation extraction at the matrix level, they fail to recognize the complex attribute patterns inside or across rows/columns of RPM. To address this problem, in this paper we propose a Hierarchical Rule Induction Network (HriNet), by intimating human induction strategies. HriNet extracts multiple granularity rule embeddings at different levels and integrates them through a gated embedding fusion module. We further introduce a rule similarity metric based on the embeddings, so that HriNet can not only be trained using a tuplet loss but also infer the best answer according to the similarity score. To comprehensively evaluate HriNet, we first fix the defects contained in the very recent RAVEN dataset and generate a new one named Balanced-RAVEN. Then extensive experiments are conducted on the large-scale dataset PGM and our Balanced-RAVEN, the results of which show that HriNet outperforms the state-of-the-art models by a large margin.
In recent years there has been a push to integrate symbolic AI and deep learning, as it is argued that the strengths and weaknesses of these approaches are complementary. One such trend in the literature are weakly supervised learning techniques that use operators from fuzzy logics. They employ prior background knowledge described in logic to benefit the training of a neural network from unlabeled and noisy data. By interpreting logical symbols using neural networks, this background knowledge can be added to regular loss functions used in deep learning to integrate reasoning and learning. In this paper, we analyze how a large collection of logical operators from the fuzzy logic literature behave in a differentiable setting. We find large differences between the formal properties of these operators that are of crucial importance in a differentiable learning setting. We show that many of these operators, including some of the best known, are highly unsuitable for use in a differentiable learning setting. A further finding concerns the treatment of implication in these fuzzy logics, with a strong imbalance between gradients driven by the antecedent and the consequent of the implication. Finally, we empirically show that it is possible to use Differentiable Fuzzy Logics for semi-supervised learning. However, to achieve the most significant performance improvement over a supervised baseline, we have to resort to non-standard combinations of logical operators which perform well in learning, but which no longer satisfy the usual logical laws. We end with a discussion on extensions to large-scale problems.
A video game development studio is about to launch an eagerly anticipated expansion to its popular role-playing game. This is hardly a typical premise you'd expect out of a TV show, yet it's precisely what you'll find in "Mythic Quest: Raven's Banquet," a new streaming comedy series on Apple TV Plus. All nine half-hour episodes of the first season debuted Friday. Co-created by Rob McElhenney, Megan Ganz and Charlie Day (of "It's Always Sunny in Philadelphia" fame), "Mythic Quest" might best be described as "The Office" meets gamer culture – both in the way it's shot (often with documentary-style camera pushes) and in the hilarious contrast between disparate personalities under pressure to deliver another hit. The formula works, mostly because of the cast's obvious chemistry, but also the smart writing, clever direction and faithful peek behind the scenes at a game studio today.