Mobile edge computing (MEC) is considered a novel paradigm for computation-intensive and delay-sensitive tasks in fifth generation (5G) networks and beyond. However, its uncertainty, referred to as dynamic and randomness, from the mobile device, wireless channel, and edge network sides, results in high-dimensional, nonconvex, nonlinear, and NP-hard optimization problems. Thanks to the evolved reinforcement learning (RL), upon iteratively interacting with the dynamic and random environment, its trained agent can intelligently obtain the optimal policy in MEC. Furthermore, its evolved versions, such as deep RL (DRL), can achieve higher convergence speed efficiency and learning accuracy based on the parametric approximation for the large-scale state-action space. This paper provides a comprehensive research review on RL-enabled MEC and offers insight for development in this area. More importantly, associated with free mobility, dynamic channels, and distributed services, the MEC challenges that can be solved by different kinds of RL algorithms are identified, followed by how they can be solved by RL solutions in diverse mobile applications. Finally, the open challenges are discussed to provide helpful guidance for future research in RL training and learning MEC.
In recent years, the number of IoT devices has been growing fast which leads to a challenging task for managing, storing, analyzing, and making decisions about raw data from different IoT devices, especially for delay-sensitive applications. In a vehicular network (VANET) environment, the dynamic nature of vehicles makes the current open research issues even more challenging due to the frequent topology changes that can lead to disconnections between vehicles. To this end, a number of research works have been proposed in the context of cloud and fog computing over the 5G infrastructure. On the other hand, there are a variety of research proposals that aim to extend the connection time between vehicles. Vehicular Social Networks (VSNs) have been defined to decrease the burden of connection time between the vehicles. This survey paper first provides the necessary background information and definitions about fog, cloud and related paradigms such as 5G and SDN. Then, it introduces the reader to Vehicular Social Networks, the different metrics and the main differences between VSNs and Online Social Networks. Finally, this survey investigates the related works in the context of VANETs that have demonstrated different architectures to address the different issues in fog computing. Moreover, it provides a categorization of the different approaches and discusses the required metrics in the context of fog and cloud and compares them to Vehicular social networks. A comparison of the relevant related works is discussed along with new research challenges and trends in the domain of VSNs and fog computing.
The purpose of the paper is to provide innovative emerging technology framework for community to combat epidemic situations. The paper proposes a unique outbreak response system framework based on artificial intelligence and edge computing for citizen centric services to help track and trace people eluding safety policies like mask detection and social distancing measure in public or workplace setup. The framework further provides implementation guideline in industrial setup as well for governance and contact tracing tasks. The adoption will thus lead in smart city planning and development focusing on citizen health systems contributing to improved quality of life. The conceptual framework presented is validated through quantitative data analysis via secondary data collection from researcher's public websites, GitHub repositories and renowned journals and further benchmarking were conducted for experimental results in Microsoft Azure cloud environment. The study includes selective AI-models for benchmark analysis and were assessed on performance and accuracy in edge computing environment for large scale societal setup. Overall YOLO model Outperforms in object detection task and is faster enough for mask detection and HRNetV2 outperform semantic segmentation problem applied to solve social distancing task in AI-Edge inferencing environmental setup. The paper proposes new Edge-AI algorithm for building technology-oriented solutions for detecting mask in human movement and social distance. The paper enriches the technological advancement in artificial intelligence and edge-computing applied to problems in society and healthcare systems. The framework further equips government agency, system providers to design and constructs technology-oriented models in community setup to Increase the quality of life using emerging technologies into smart urban environments.
Yao, Jiangchao, Zhang, Shengyu, Yao, Yang, Wang, Feng, Ma, Jianxin, Zhang, Jianwei, Chu, Yunfei, Ji, Luo, Jia, Kunyang, Shen, Tao, Wu, Anpeng, Zhang, Fengda, Tan, Ziqi, Kuang, Kun, Wu, Chao, Wu, Fei, Zhou, Jingren, Yang, Hongxia
Influenced by the great success of deep learning via cloud computing and the rapid development of edge chips, research in artificial intelligence (AI) has shifted to both of the computing paradigms, i.e., cloud computing and edge computing. In recent years, we have witnessed significant progress in developing more advanced AI models on cloud servers that surpass traditional deep learning models owing to model innovations (e.g., Transformers, Pretrained families), explosion of training data and soaring computing capabilities. However, edge computing, especially edge and cloud collaborative computing, are still in its infancy to announce their success due to the resource-constrained IoT scenarios with very limited algorithms deployed. In this survey, we conduct a systematic review for both cloud and edge AI. Specifically, we are the first to set up the collaborative learning mechanism for cloud and edge modeling with a thorough review of the architectures that enable such mechanism. We also discuss potentials and practical experiences of some on-going advanced edge AI topics including pretraining models, graph neural networks and reinforcement learning. Finally, we discuss the promising directions and challenges in this field.
An Intelligent IoT Environment (iIoTe) is comprised of heterogeneous devices that can collaboratively execute semi-autonomous IoT applications, examples of which include highly automated manufacturing cells or autonomously interacting harvesting machines. Energy efficiency is key in such edge environments, since they are often based on an infrastructure that consists of wireless and battery-run devices, e.g., e-tractors, drones, Automated Guided Vehicle (AGV)s and robots. The total energy consumption draws contributions from multiple iIoTe technologies that enable edge computing and communication, distributed learning, as well as distributed ledgers and smart contracts. This paper provides a state-of-the-art overview of these technologies and illustrates their functionality and performance, with special attention to the tradeoff among resources, latency, privacy and energy consumption. Finally, the paper provides a vision for integrating these enabling technologies in ...
The ubiquitous availability of computing devices and the widespread use of the internet have generated a large amount of data continuously. Therefore, the amount of available information on any given topic is far beyond humans' processing capacity to properly process, causing what is known as information overload. To efficiently cope with large amounts of information and generate content with significant value to users, we require identifying, merging and summarising information. Data summaries can help gather related information and collect it into a shorter format that enables answering complicated questions, gaining new insight and discovering conceptual boundaries. This thesis focuses on three main challenges to alleviate information overload using novel summarisation techniques. It further intends to facilitate the analysis of documents to support personalised information extraction. This thesis separates the research issues into four areas, covering (i) feature engineering in document summarisation, (ii) traditional static and inflexible summaries, (iii) traditional generic summarisation approaches, and (iv) the need for reference summaries. We propose novel approaches to tackle these challenges, by: i)enabling automatic intelligent feature engineering, ii) enabling flexible and interactive summarisation, iii) utilising intelligent and personalised summarisation approaches. The experimental results prove the efficiency of the proposed approaches compared to other state-of-the-art models. We further propose solutions to the information overload problem in different domains through summarisation, covering network traffic data, health data and business process data.
The Covid-19 pandemic over the past 18 months spurred businesses to accelerate a number of IT initiatives, from moving to the cloud to adopting AI-powered applications. That doesn't mean, however, that organizations forgot about their sustainability goals. If anything, a new survey suggests, IT leaders over the past year have put more emphasis on sustainability. According to a survey of 2,000 IT decision-makers around the globe, 27 percent introduced or accelerated sustainability initiatives over the past year. Just 14 percent delayed or canceled sustainability initiatives.
Edge technology aims to bring Cloud resources (specifically, the compute, storage, and network) to the closed proximity of the Edge devices, i.e., smart devices where the data are produced and consumed. Embedding computing and application in Edge devices lead to emerging of two new concepts in Edge technology, namely, Edge computing and Edge analytics. Edge analytics uses some techniques or algorithms to analyze the data generated by the Edge devices. With the emerging of Edge analytics, the Edge devices have become a complete set. Currently, Edge analytics is unable to provide full support for the execution of the analytic techniques. The Edge devices cannot execute advanced and sophisticated analytic algorithms following various constraints such as limited power supply, small memory size, limited resources, etc. This article aims to provide a detailed discussion on Edge analytics. A clear explanation to distinguish between the three concepts of Edge technology, namely, Edge devices, Edge computing, and Edge analytics, along with their issues. Furthermore, the article discusses the implementation of Edge analytics to solve many problems in various areas such as retail, agriculture, industry, and healthcare. In addition, the research papers of the state-of-the-art edge analytics are rigorously reviewed in this article to explore the existing issues, emerging challenges, research opportunities and their directions, and applications.
Deep Neural Network (DNN), one of the most powerful machine learning algorithms, is increasingly leveraged to overcome the bottleneck of effectively exploring and analyzing massive data to boost advanced scientific development. It is not a surprise that cloud computing providers offer the cloud-based DNN as an out-of-the-box service. Though there are some benefits from the cloud-based DNN, the interaction mechanism among two or multiple entities in the cloud inevitably induces new privacy risks. This survey presents the most recent findings of privacy attacks and defenses appeared in cloud-based neural network services. We systematically and thoroughly review privacy attacks and defenses in the pipeline of cloud-based DNN service, i.e., data manipulation, training, and prediction. In particular, a new theory, called cloud-based ML privacy game, is extracted from the recently published literature to provide a deep understanding of state-of-the-art research. Finally, the challenges and future work are presented to help researchers to continue to push forward the competitions between privacy attackers and defenders.