If you are looking for an answer to the question What is Artificial Intelligence? and you only have a minute, then here's the definition the Association for the Advancement of Artificial Intelligence offers on its home page: "the scientific understanding of the mechanisms underlying thought and intelligent behavior and their embodiment in machines."
However, if you are fortunate enough to have more than a minute, then please get ready to embark upon an exciting journey exploring AI (but beware, it could last a lifetime) …
Crowdsourcing is a relatively economic and efficient solution to collect annotations from the crowd through online platforms. Answers collected from workers with different expertise may be noisy and unreliable, and the quality of annotated data needs to be further maintained. Various solutions have been attempted to obtain high-quality annotations. However, they all assume that workers' label quality is stable over time (always at the same level whenever they conduct the tasks). In practice, workers' attention level changes over time, and the ignorance of which can affect the reliability of the annotations. In this paper, we focus on a novel and realistic crowdsourcing scenario involving attention-aware annotations. We propose a new probabilistic model that takes into account workers' attention to estimate the label quality. Expectation propagation is adopted for efficient Bayesian inference of our model, and a generalized Expectation Maximization algorithm is derived to estimate both the ground truth of all tasks and the label-quality of each individual crowd worker with attention. In addition, the number of tasks best suited for a worker is estimated according to changes in attention. Experiments against related methods on three real-world and one semi-simulated datasets demonstrate that our method quantifies the relationship between workers' attention and label-quality on the given tasks, and improves the aggregated labels.
Autoencoders, as a dimensionality reduction technique, have been recently applied to outlier detection. However, neural networks are known to be vulnerable to overfitting, and therefore have limited potential in the unsupervised outlier detection setting. Current approaches to ensemble-based autoencoders do not generate a sufficient level of diversity to avoid the overfitting issue. To overcome the aforementioned limitations we develop a Boosting-based Autoencoder Ensemble approach (in short, BAE). BAE is an unsupervised ensemble method that, similarly to the boosting approach, builds an adaptive cascade of autoencoders to achieve improved and robust results. BAE trains the autoencoder components sequentially by performing a weighted sampling of the data, aimed at reducing the amount of outliers used during training, and at injecting diversity in the ensemble. We perform extensive experiments and show that the proposed methodology outperforms state-of-the-art approaches under a variety of conditions.
Patel, Raj, Domeniconi, Carlotta
Estimator Vectors: OOV Word Embeddings based on Subword and Context Clue Estimates Raj Patel Carlotta Domeniconi † Abstract Semantic representations of words have been successfully extracted from unlabeled corpuses using neural network models like word2vec. These representations are generally high quality and are computationally inexpensive to train, making them popular. However, these approaches generally fail to approximate out of vocabulary (OOV) words, a task humans can do quite easily, using word roots and context clues. This paper proposes a neural network model that learns high quality word representations, subword representations, and context clue representations jointly. Learning all three types of representations together enhances the learning of each, leading to enriched word vectors, along with strong estimates for OOV words, via the combination of the corresponding context clue and subword embeddings. Our model, called Estimator Vectors (EV), learns strong word embed-dings and is competitive with state of the art methods for OOV estimation. 1 Introduction Semantic representations of words are useful for many natural language processing (NLP) tasks. While there exists many ways to learn them, models like word2vec  and GloVe  have been shown to be very efficient at producing high quality word embeddings. These embeddings not only capture similarity between words, but also capture some algebraic relationships between words. These models, though, also have some downsides. One major drawback is that they can only learn embeddings for words in the vocabulary, determined by the corpus they were trained on. Although common words are typically captured, most existing approaches are unable to learn the meaning of new words, known as out of vocabulary (OOV) words, a task humans can do easily.
Hashing has been widely adopted for large-scale data retrieval in many domains, due to its low storage cost and high retrieval speed. Existing cross-modal hashing methods optimistically assume that the correspondence between training samples across modalities are readily available. This assumption is unrealistic in practical applications. In addition, these methods generally require the same number of samples across different modalities, which restricts their flexibility. We propose a flexible cross-modal hashing approach (Flex-CMH) to learn effective hashing codes from weakly-paired data, whose correspondence across modalities are partially (or even totally) unknown. FlexCMH first introduces a clustering-based matching strategy to explore the local structure of each cluster, and thus to find the potential correspondence between clusters (and samples therein) across modalities. To reduce the impact of an incomplete correspondence, it jointly optimizes in a unified objective function the potential correspondence, the cross-modal hashing functions derived from the correspondence, and a hashing quantitative loss. An alternative optimization technique is also proposed to coordinate the correspondence and hash functions, and to reinforce the reciprocal effects of the two objectives. Experiments on publicly multi-modal datasets show that FlexCMH achieves significantly better results than state-of-the-art methods, and it indeed offers a high degree of flexibility for practical cross-modal hashing tasks.
Multi-view Multi-instance Multi-label Learning(M3L) deals with complex objects encompassing diverse instances, represented with different feature views, and annotated with multiple labels. Existing M3L solutions only partially explore the inter or intra relations between objects (or bags), instances, and labels, which can convey important contextual information for M3L. As such, they may have a compromised performance. In this paper, we propose a collaborative matrix factorization based solution called M3Lcmf. M3Lcmf first uses a heterogeneous network composed of nodes of bags, instances, and labels, to encode different types of relations via multiple relational data matrices. To preserve the intrinsic structure of the data matrices, M3Lcmf collaboratively factorizes them into low-rank matrices, explores the latent relationships between bags, instances, and labels, and selectively merges the data matrices. An aggregation scheme is further introduced to aggregate the instance-level labels into bag-level and to guide the factorization. An empirical study on benchmark datasets show that M3Lcmf outperforms other related competitive solutions both in the instance-level and bag-level prediction.
Heterogeneous network embedding (HNE) is a challenging task due to the diverse node types and/or diverse relationships between nodes. Existing HNE methods are typically unsupervised. To maximize the profit of utilizing the rare and valuable supervised information in HNEs, we develop a novel Active Heterogeneous Network Embedding (ActiveHNE) framework, which includes two components: Discriminative Heterogeneous Network Embedding (DHNE) and Active Query in Heterogeneous Networks (AQHN). In DHNE, we introduce a novel semi-supervised heterogeneous network embedding method based on graph convolutional neural network. In AQHN, we first introduce three active selection strategies based on uncertainty and representativeness, and then derive a batch selection method that assembles these strategies using a multi-armed bandit mechanism. ActiveHNE aims at improving the performance of HNE by feeding the most valuable supervision obtained by AQHN into DHNE. Experiments on public datasets demonstrate the effectiveness of ActiveHNE and its advantage on reducing the query cost.
Multiple clustering aims at exploring alternative clusterings to organize the data into meaningful groups from different perspectives. Existing multiple clustering algorithms are designed for single-view data. We assume that the individuality and commonality of multi-view data can be leveraged to generate high-quality and diverse clusterings. To this end, we propose a novel multi-view multiple clustering (MVMC) algorithm. MVMC first adapts multi-view self-representation learning to explore the individuality encoding matrices and the shared commonality matrix of multi-view data. It additionally reduces the redundancy (i.e., enhancing the individuality) among the matrices using the Hilbert-Schmidt Independence Criterion (HSIC), and collects shared information by forcing the shared matrix to be smooth across all views. It then uses matrix factorization on the individual matrices, along with the shared matrix, to generate diverse clusterings of high-quality. We further extend multiple co-clustering on multi-view data and propose a solution called multi-view multiple co-clustering (MVMCC). Our empirical study shows that MVMC (MVMCC) can exploit multi-view data to generate multiple high-quality and diverse clusterings (co-clusterings), with superior performance to the state-of-the-art methods.
Cross-modal hashing has been receiving increasing interests for its low storage cost and fast query speed in multi-modal data retrievals. However, most existing hashing methods are based on hand-crafted or raw level features of objects, which may not be optimally compatible with the coding process. Besides, these hashing methods are mainly designed to handle simple pairwise similarity. The complex multilevel ranking semantic structure of instances associated with multiple labels has not been well explored yet. In this paper, we propose a ranking-based deep cross-modal hashing approach (RDCMH). RDCMH firstly uses the feature and label information of data to derive a semi-supervised semantic ranking list. Next, to expand the semantic representation power of hand-crafted features, RDCMH integrates the semantic ranking information into deep cross-modal hashing and jointly optimizes the compatible parameters of deep feature representations and of hashing functions. Experiments on real multi-modal datasets show that RDCMH outperforms other competitive baselines and achieves the state-of-the-art performance in cross-modal retrieval applications.
Multiple clustering aims at discovering diverse ways of organizing data into clusters. Despite the progress made, it's still a challenge for users to analyze and understand the distinctive structure of each output clustering. To ease this process, we consider diverse clusterings embedded in different subspaces, and analyze the embedding subspaces to shed light into the structure of each clustering. To this end, we provide a two-stage approach called MISC (Multiple Independent Subspace Clusterings). In the first stage, MISC uses independent subspace analysis to seek multiple and statistical independent (i.e. non-redundant) subspaces, and determines the number of subspaces via the minimum description length principle. In the second stage, to account for the intrinsic geometric structure of samples embedded in each subspace, MISC performs graph regularized semi-nonnegative matrix factorization to explore clusters. It additionally integrates the kernel trick into matrix factorization to handle non-linearly separable clusters. Experimental results on synthetic datasets show that MISC can find different interesting clusterings from the sought independent subspaces, and it also outperforms other related and competitive approaches on real-world datasets.
An ensemble technique is characterized by the mechanism that generates the components and by the mechanism that combines them. A common way to achieve the consensus is to enable each component to equally participate in the aggregation process. A problem with this approach is that poor components are likely to negatively affect the quality of the consensus result. To address this issue, alternatives have been explored in the literature to build selective classifier and cluster ensembles, where only a subset of the components contributes to the computation of the consensus. Of the family of ensemble methods, outlier ensembles are the least studied. Only recently, the selection problem for outlier ensembles has been discussed. In this work we define a new graph-based class of ranking selection methods. A method in this class is characterized by two main steps: (1) Mapping the rankings onto a graph structure; and (2) Mining the resulting graph to identify a subset of rankings. We define a specific instance of the graph-based ranking selection class. Specifically, we map the problem of selecting ensemble components onto a mining problem in a graph. An extensive evaluation was conducted on a variety of heterogeneous data and methods. Our empirical results show that our approach outperforms state-of-the-art selective outlier ensemble techniques.