The tensions between explainable AI and good public policy


There are two reasons why. First, with machine learning in general and neural networks or deep learning in particular, there is often a trade-off between performance and explainability. The larger and more complex a model, the harder it will be to understand, even though its performance is generally better. Unfortunately, for complex situations with many interacting influences--which is true of many key areas of policy--machine learning will often be more useful the more of a black box it is. As a result, holding such systems accountable will almost always be a matter of post hoc monitoring and evaluation.