AI programs are constructed within a complex framework that includes a computer's hardware and operating system, programming languages, and often general frameworks for representing and reasoning.
Cresta Intelligence, a California-based AI startup, makes businesses radically more productive by using Expertise AI to help sales and service teams unlock their full potential. Cresta is bringing together world-renowned AI thought-leaders, engineers, and investors to create a real-time coaching and management solution that transforms sales and increases service productivity, weeks after application deployment. Cresta enables customers such as Intuit, Cox Communications, and Porsche to realize a 20% improvement in sales conversion rate, 25% greater average order value, and millions of dollars in additional annual revenue. This post discusses Cresta's journey as they moved from a multi-cloud environment to consolidating their machine learning (ML) workloads on AWS. It also gives a high-level view of their legacy and current training and inference architectures.
Learning from one's mistakes is an effective human learning technique where the learners focus more on the topics where mistakes were made, so as to deepen their understanding. In this paper, we investigate if this human learning strategy can be applied in machine learning. We propose a novel machine learning method called Learning From Mistakes (LFM), wherein the learner improves its ability to learn by focusing more on the mistakes during revision. We formulate LFM as a three-stage optimization problem: 1) learner learns; 2) learner re-learns focusing on the mistakes, and; 3) learner validates its learning. We develop an efficient algorithm to solve the LFM problem.
Cellular automata (CA) are a class of computational models that exhibit rich dynamics emerging from the local interaction of cells arranged in a regular lattice. In this work we focus on a generalised version of typical CA, called graph cellular automata (GCA), in which the lattice structure is replaced by an arbitrary graph. In particular, we extend previous work that used convolutional neural networks to learn the transition rule of conventional CA and we use graph neural networks to learn a variety of transition rules for GCA. First, we present a general-purpose architecture for learning GCA, and we show that it can represent any arbitrary GCA with finite and discrete state space. Then, we test our approach on three different tasks: 1) learning the transition rule of a GCA on a Voronoi tessellation; 2) imitating the behaviour of a group of flocking agents; 3) learning a rule that converges to a desired target state.
Graphical models, used to express conditional dependence between random variables observed at various nodes, are used extensively in many fields such as genetics, neuroscience, and social network analysis. While most current statistical methods for estimating graphical models focus on scalar data, there is interest in estimating analogous dependence structures when the data observed at each node are functional, such as signals or images. In this paper, we propose a fully Bayesian regularization scheme for estimating functional graphical models. We first consider a direct Bayesian analog of the functional graphical lasso proposed by Qiao et al. (2019). We then propose a regularization strategy via the graphical horseshoe. We compare these approaches via simulation study and apply our proposed functional graphical horseshoe to two motivating applications, electroencephalography data for comparing brain activation between an alcoholic group and controls, as well as changes in structural connectivity in the presence of traumatic brain injury (TBI). Our results yield insight into how the brain attempts to compensate for disconnected networks after injury.
The Graphical model is a subdivision of Machine Learning. It uses a graph to signify a domain problem. A graph states the conditional need structure between random variables. These are being used in many Machine Learning algorithms. In this article, we will learn about the graphical model, its types and application. There are lots of causes to learn about graphical or probabilistic modeling.
We present a method of generating a collection of neural cellular automata (NCA) to design video game levels. While NCAs have so far only been trained via supervised learning, we present a quality diversity (QD) approach to generating a collection of NCA level generators. By framing the problem as a QD problem, our approach can train diverse level generators, whose output levels vary based on aesthetic or functional criteria. To efficiently generate NCAs, we train generators via Covariance Matrix Adaptation MAP-Elites (CMA-ME), a quality diversity algorithm which specializes in continuous search spaces. We apply our new method to generate level generators for several 2D tile-based games: a maze game, Sokoban, and Zelda. Our results show that CMA-ME can generate small NCAs that are diverse yet capable, often satisfying complex solvability criteria for deterministic agents. We compare against a Compositional Pattern-Producing Network (CPPN) baseline trained to produce diverse collections of generators and show that the NCA representation yields a better exploration of level-space.
This volume contains papers presented at the Ninth International Symposium on Symbolic Computation in Software Science, SCSS 2021. Symbolic Computation is the science of computing with symbolic objects (terms, formulae, programs, representations of algebraic objects, etc.). Powerful algorithms have been developed during the past decades for the major subareas of symbolic computation: computer algebra and computational logic. These algorithms and methods are successfully applied in various fields, including software science, which covers a broad range of topics about software construction and analysis. Meanwhile, artificial intelligence methods and machine learning algorithms are widely used nowadays in various domains and, in particular, combined with symbolic computation. Several approaches mix artificial intelligence and symbolic methods and tools deployed over large corpora to create what is known as cognitive systems. Cognitive computing focuses on building systems that interact with humans naturally by reasoning, aiming at learning at scale. The purpose of SCSS is to promote research on theoretical and practical aspects of symbolic computation in software science, combined with modern artificial intelligence techniques. These proceedings contain the keynote paper by Bruno Buchberger and ten contributed papers. Besides, the conference program included three invited talks, nine short and work-in-progress papers, and a special session on computer algebra and computational logic. Due to the COVID-19 pandemic, the symposium was held completely online. It was organized by the Research Institute for Symbolic Computation (RISC) of the Johannes Kepler University Linz on September 8--10, 2021.
In this note, I develop my personal view on the scope and relevance of symbolic computation in software science. For this, I discuss the interaction and differences between symbolic computation, software science, automatic programming, mathematical knowledge management, artificial intelligence, algorithmic intelligence, numerical computation, and machine learning. In the discussion of these notions, I allow myself to refer also to papers (1982, 1985, 2001, 2003, 2013) of mine in which I expressed my views on these areas at early stages of some of these fields. It is a great joy to see that the SCSS (Symbolic Computation in Software Science) conference series, this year, experiences its 9th edition. A big Thank You to the organizers, referees, and contributors who kept the series going over the years! The series emerged from a couple of meetings of research groups in Austria, Japan, and Tunisia, including my Theorema Group at RISC, see the home pages of the SCSS series since 2006. In 2012, we decided to define "Symbolic Computation in Software Science" as the scope for our meetings and to establish them as an open conference series with this title. As always, when one puts two terms like "symbolic computation" and "software science" together, one is tempted to read the preposition in between - in our case "in" - as just a set-theoretic union. Pragmatically, this is reasonable if one does not want to embark on scrutinizing discussions. However, since I was one of the initiators of the SCSS series, let me take the opportunity to explain the intention behind SC in SS in this note. Also, this note, for me, is a kind of revision and summary of thoughts I had over the years on the subject of SCSS and related subjects.
Federated learning is an emerging privacy-preserving AI technique where clients (i.e., organisations or devices) train models locally and formulate a global model based on the local model updates without transferring local data externally. However, federated learning systems struggle to achieve trustworthiness and embody responsible AI principles. In particular, federated learning systems face accountability and fairness challenges due to multi-stakeholder involvement and heterogeneity in client data distribution. To enhance the accountability and fairness of federated learning systems, we present a blockchain-based trustworthy federated learning architecture. We first design a smart contract-based data-model provenance registry to enable accountability. Additionally, we propose a weighted fair data sampler algorithm to enhance fairness in training data. We evaluate the proposed approach using a COVID-19 X-ray detection use case. The evaluation results show that the approach is feasible to enable accountability and improve fairness. The proposed algorithm can achieve better performance than the default federated learning setting in terms of the model's generalisation and accuracy.