AI programs are constructed within a complex framework that includes a computer's hardware and operating system, programming languages, and often general frameworks for representing and reasoning.
Matrix AI Network employed AI-Optimization to create a secure high-performance open source blockchain. MANAS is a distributed AI Service Platform built on MATRIX Mainnet. Its functions include AI model training, AI algorithmic model authentication, algorithmic model transaction, paid access to algorithmic models through API, etc. We aim to build a distributed AI network where everyone can build, share, and profit from AI services. Matrix AI continues to build in every field where artificial intelligence is needed.
This is Part II of the two-part comprehensive survey devoted to a computing framework most commonly known under the names Hyperdimensional Computing and Vector Symbolic Architectures (HDC/VSA). Both names refer to a family of computational models that use high-dimensional distributed representations and rely on the algebraic properties of their key operations to incorporate the advantages of structured symbolic representations and vector distributed representations. Holographic Reduced Representations is an influential HDC/VSA model that is well-known in the machine learning domain and often used to refer to the whole family. However, for the sake of consistency, we use HDC/VSA to refer to the area. Part I of this survey covered foundational aspects of the area, such as historical context leading to the development of HDC/VSA, key elements of any HDC/VSA model, known HDC/VSA models, and transforming input data of various types into high-dimensional vectors suitable for HDC/VSA. This second part surveys existing applications, the role of HDC/VSA in cognitive computing and architectures, as well as directions for future work. Most of the applications lie within the machine learning/artificial intelligence domain, however we also cover other applications to provide a thorough picture. The survey is written to be useful for both newcomers and practitioners.
In order to develop systems capable of artificial evolution, we need to identify which systems can produce complex behavior. We present a novel classification method applicable to any class of deterministic discrete space and time dynamical systems. The method is based on classifying the asymptotic behavior of the average computation time in a given system before entering a loop. We were able to identify a critical region of behavior that corresponds to a phase transition from ordered behavior to chaos across various classes of dynamical systems. To show that our approach can be applied to many different computational systems, we demonstrate the results of classifying cellular automata, Turing machines, and random Boolean networks. Further, we use this method to classify 2D cellular automata to automatically find those with interesting, complex dynamics. We believe that our work can be used to design systems in which complex structures emerge. Also, it can be used to compare various versions of existing attempts to model open-ended evolution (Ray (1991), Ofria et al. (2004), Channon (2006)).
Building operations represent a significant percentage of the total primary energy consumed in most countries due to the proliferation of Heating, Ventilation and Air-Conditioning (HVAC) installations in response to the growing demand for improved thermal comfort. Reducing the associated energy consumption while maintaining comfortable conditions in buildings are conflicting objectives and represent a typical optimization problem that requires intelligent system design. Over the last decade, different methodologies based on the Artificial Intelligence (AI) techniques have been deployed to find the sweet spot between energy use in HVAC systems and suitable indoor comfort levels to the occupants. This paper performs a comprehensive and an in-depth systematic review of AI-based techniques used for building control systems by assessing the outputs of these techniques, and their implementations in the reviewed works, as well as investigating their abilities to improve the energy-efficiency, while maintaining thermal comfort conditions. This enables a holistic view of (1) the complexities of delivering thermal comfort to users inside buildings in an energy-efficient way, and (2) the associated bibliographic material to assist researchers and experts in the field in tackling such a challenge. Among the 20 AI tools developed for both energy consumption and comfort control, functions such as identification and recognition patterns, optimization, predictive control. Based on the findings of this work, the application of AI technology in building control is a promising area of research and still an ongoing, i.e., the performance of AI-based control is not yet completely satisfactory. This is mainly due in part to the fact that these algorithms usually need a large amount of high-quality real-world data, which is lacking in the building or, more precisely, the energy sector.
Hogan, Aidan, Blomqvist, Eva, Cochez, Michael, d'Amato, Claudia, de Melo, Gerard, Gutierrez, Claudio, Gayo, José Emilio Labra, Kirrane, Sabrina, Neumaier, Sebastian, Polleres, Axel, Navigli, Roberto, Ngomo, Axel-Cyrille Ngonga, Rashid, Sabbir M., Rula, Anisa, Schmelzeisen, Lukas, Sequeda, Juan, Staab, Steffen, Zimmermann, Antoine
In this paper we provide a comprehensive introduction to knowledge graphs, which have recently garnered significant attention from both industry and academia in scenarios that require exploiting diverse, dynamic, large-scale collections of data. After a general introduction, we motivate and contrast various graph-based data models and query languages that are used for knowledge graphs. We discuss the roles of schema, identity, and context in knowledge graphs. We explain how knowledge can be represented and extracted using a combination of deductive and inductive techniques. We summarise methods for the creation, enrichment, quality assessment, refinement, and publication of knowledge graphs. We provide an overview of prominent open knowledge graphs and enterprise knowledge graphs, their applications, and how they use the aforementioned techniques. We conclude with high-level future research directions for knowledge graphs.
Human knowledge provides a formal understanding of the world. Knowledge graphs that represent structural relations between entities have become an increasingly popular research direction towards cognition and human-level intelligence. In this survey, we provide a comprehensive review on knowledge graph covering overall research topics about 1) knowledge graph representation learning, 2) knowledge acquisition and completion, 3) temporal knowledge graph, and 4) knowledge-aware applications, and summarize recent breakthroughs and perspective directions to facilitate future research. We propose a full-view categorization and new taxonomies on these topics. Knowledge graph embedding is organized from four aspects of representation space, scoring function, encoding models and auxiliary information. For knowledge acquisition, especially knowledge graph completion, embedding methods, path inference and logical rule reasoning are reviewed. We further explore several emerging topics including meta relational learning, commonsense reasoning, and temporal knowledge graphs. To facilitate future research on knowledge graphs, we also provide a curated collection of datasets and open-source libraries on different tasks. In the end, we have a thorough outlook on several promising research directions.
--In this paper we propose an approach for measuring growth of complexity of emerging patterns in complex systems such as cellular automata. We discuss several ways how a metric for measuring the complexity growth can be defined. This includes approaches based on compression algorithms and artificial neural networks. We believe such a metric can be useful for designing systems that could exhibit open-ended evolution, which itself might be a prerequisite for development of general artificial intelligence. We conduct experiments on 1D and 2D grid worlds and demonstrate that using the proposed metric we can automatically construct computational models with emerging properties similar to those found in the Conway's Game of Life, as well as many other emergent phenomena. Interestingly, some of the patterns we observe resemble forms of artificial life. Our metric of structural complexity growth can be applied to a wide range of complex systems, as it is not limited to cellular automata. Recent advances in machine learning and deep learning have had successes at reproducing some very complex feats traditionally thought to be only achievable by living beings. However, making these systems adaptable and capable of developing and evolving on their own remains a challenge that might be crucial for eventually developing AI with general learning capabilities (for example as is further discussed in ). Building systems that mimic some key aspects of the behavior of existing intelligent organisms (such as the ability to evolve, improve, adapt, etc.) might represent a promising path. Intelligent organisms -- e.g., human beings but also most living organisms if we consider a broad definition of intelligence -- are a form of spontaneously occurring, ever evolving complex systems that exhibit these kinds of properties .
Nature provides us with abundant examples of how large numbers of individuals can make decisions without the coordination of a central authority. Social insects, birds, fishes, and many other living collectives, rely on simple interaction mechanisms to do so. They individually gather information from the environment; small bits of a much larger picture that are then shared locally among the members of the collective and processed together to output a commonly agreed choice. Throughout evolution, Nature found solutions to collective decision-making problems that are intriguing to engineers for their robustness to malfunctioning or lost individuals, their flexibility in face of dynamic environments, and their ability to scale with large numbers of members. In the last decades, whereas biologists amassed large amounts of experimental evidence, engineers took inspiration from these and other examples to design distributed algorithms that, while maintaining the same properties of their natural counterparts, come with guarantees on their performance in the form of predictive mathematical models. In this paper, we review the fundamental processes that lead to a collective decision. We discuss examples of collective decisions in biological systems and show how similar processes can be engineered to design artificial ones. During this journey, we review a framework to design distributed decision-making algorithms that are modular, can be instantiated and extended in different ways, and are supported by a suit of predictive mathematical models.
Systems biology, the study of the intricate, ramified, com-plex and interacting mechanisms underlying life, often proves too complex for unaided human understanding, even by groups of people working together. This difficulty is ex-acerbated by the high volume of publications in molecular biology. The Big C (‘C’ for Cyc) is a system designed to (semi-)automatically acquire, integrate, and use complex mechanism models, specifically related to cancer biology, via automated reading and a hyper-detailed refinement pro-cess resting on Cyc’s logical representations and powerful inference mechanisms. We aim to assist cancer research and treatment by achieving elements of biologist-level reason-ing, but with the scale and attention to detail that only com-puter implementations can provide.