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Ontologies and Semantic Annotation. Part 1: What Is an Ontology -


In the abundance of information, both machines and human researchers need tools to navigate and process it. Structuring and formalization of data into hierarchies, such as trees, may establish the relations between the data required for efficient machine processing and may make the information more readable for data analysts. Yet, in more complex domains, such as in natural language processing, relations between concepts go beyond simple hierarchies and form thesaurus-like networks. For such cases, researchers use ontologies as common vocabularies for specialists who need to share information in a domain. Ontologies were first defined as "explicit formal specifications of the terms in the domain and relations among them" (Gruber 1993) and, more specifically, "a formal, explicit specification of a shared conceptualization" (Studer et al. 1998) and are used in a number of applications, including the following, as specified by Noy and McGuinness (Noy and McGuinness 2001): Ontologies are the tools to provide comprehensive description of the domain of interest with respect to the users' needs It is something that we see when, for example, medical information is published on, several different websites.

Embedded System Design using UML State Machines


A state machine model is a mathematical model that groups all possible system occurrences, called states. The course emphasizes project-based learning, learning by doing. The goal of this course is to introduce an event-driven programming paradigm using simple and hierarchical state machines. After going through this course, you will be trained to apply the state machine approach to solve your complex embedded systems projects. If you are a beginner in the field of embedded systems, then you can take our courses in the below-mentioned order.

Clinical text mining using the Amazon Comprehend Medical new SNOMED CT API


Mining medical concepts from written clinical text, such as patient encounters, plays an important role in clinical analytics and decision-making applications, such as population analytics for providers, pre-authorization for payers, and adverse-event detection for pharma companies. Medical concepts contain medical conditions, medications, procedures, and other clinical events. Extracting medical concepts is a complicated process due to the specialist knowledge required and the broad use of synonyms in the medical field. Furthermore, to make detected concepts useful for large-scale analytics and decision-making applications, they have to be codified. This is a process where a specialist looks up matching codes from a medical ontology, often containing tens to hundreds of thousands of concepts.

McLaren partners with AI specialist for performance optimization


McLaren Racing has announced a new partnership with AI cloud platform developer DataRobot, which offers a unified platform that reportedly allows organizations to unlock the full potential of AI. Under the partnership, DataRobot's AI cloud technology platform will be integrated into the McLaren Racing infrastructure, delivering AI-powered predictions and insights to maximize performance and optimize simulations. Zak Brown, CEO of McLaren Racing, commented, "DataRobot is a leader in its field, bringing its innovative technology and platform to top businesses around the globe. McLaren Racing continues to lead in innovation and technology, and partnerships with the likes of DataRobot allow us to progress, improve and support our team in our ongoing push for optimum performance. We are delighted to welcome DataRobot as they join our partner family for the Qatar Grand Prix this weekend."

Pinaki Laskar on LinkedIn: #artificialintelligence #MachineIntelligence #MachineLearning


AI Researcher, Cognitive Technologist Inventor - AI Thinking, Think Chain Innovator - AIOT, XAI, Autonomous Cars, IIOT Founder Fisheyebox Spatial Computing Savant, Transformative Leader, Industry X.0 Practitioner Are we using #artificialintelligence to determine a theory of everything? It is a real and true AI, which is about modeling and simulation everything in terms of the theory of everything. The so-called "Classic/symbolic/logical AI" is dead due to the large-scale AI projects, as GOFAI, CYC, Soar, Japan's 5th Generation CI, US SCI, WBE, failed and closed or failing. The whole construct of AI, be it weak AI or strong AI, full AI, or HL AI, is turned speculative due to its failed program of simulating human reasoning by formal logical means. Too many AI investments end up as "pretty shiny objects" that don't pay off.

Cloud, microservices, and data mess? Graph, ontology, and application fabric to the rescue.


How do you solve the age-old data integration issue? We addressed this in one of the first articles we wrote for this column back in 2016. It was a time when key terms and trends that dominate today's landscape, such as knowledge graphs and data fabric, were under the radar at best. Data integration may not sound as deliciously intriguing as AI or machine learning tidbits sprinkled on vanilla apps. Still, it is the bread and butter of many, the enabler of all cool things using data, and a premium use case for concepts underpinning AI, we argued back then.

Creating Knowledge Graphs Subsets using Shape Expressions Artificial Intelligence

The initial adoption of knowledge graphs by Google and later by big companies has increased their adoption and popularity. In this paper we present a formal model for three different types of knowledge graphs which we call RDF-based graphs, property graphs and wikibase graphs. In order to increase the quality of Knowledge Graphs, several approaches have appeared to describe and validate their contents. Shape Expressions (ShEx) has been proposed as concise language for RDF validation. We give a brief introduction to ShEx and present two extensions that can also be used to describe and validate property graphs (PShEx) and wikibase graphs (WShEx). One problem of knowledge graphs is the large amount of data they contain, which jeopardizes their practical application. In order to palliate this problem, one approach is to create subsets of those knowledge graphs for some domains. We propose the following approaches to generate those subsets: Entity-matching, simple matching, ShEx matching, ShEx plus Slurp and ShEx plus Pregel which are based on declaratively defining the subsets by either matching some content or by Shape Expressions. The last approach is based on a novel validation algorithm for ShEx based on the Pregel algorithm that can handle big data graphs and has been implemented on Apache Spark GraphX.

Why Settle for Just One? Extending EL++ Ontology Embeddings with Many-to-Many Relationships Artificial Intelligence

Knowledge Graph (KG) embeddings provide a low-dimensional representation of entities and relations of a Knowledge Graph and are used successfully for various applications such as question answering and search, reasoning, inference, and missing link prediction. However, most of the existing KG embeddings only consider the network structure of the graph and ignore the semantics and the characteristics of the underlying ontology that provides crucial information about relationships between entities in the KG. Recent efforts in this direction involve learning embeddings for a Description Logic (logical underpinning for ontologies) named EL++. However, such methods consider all the relations defined in the ontology to be one-to-one which severely limits their performance and applications. We provide a simple and effective solution to overcome this shortcoming that allows such methods to consider many-to-many relationships while learning embedding representations. Experiments conducted using three different EL++ ontologies show substantial performance improvement over five baselines. Our proposed solution also paves the way for learning embedding representations for even more expressive description logics such as SROIQ.

Development of Semantic Web-based Imaging Database for Biological Morphome Artificial Intelligence

We introduce the RIKEN Microstructural Imaging Metadatabase, a semantic web-based imaging database in which image metadata are described using the Resource Description Framework (RDF) and detailed biological properties observed in the images can be represented as Linked Open Data. The metadata are used to develop a large-scale imaging viewer that provides a straightforward graphical user interface to visualise a large microstructural tiling image at the gigabyte level. We applied the database to accumulate comprehensive microstructural imaging data produced by automated scanning electron microscopy. As a result, we have successfully managed vast numbers of images and their metadata, including the interpretation of morphological phenotypes occurring in sub-cellular components and biosamples captured in the images. We also discuss advanced utilisation of morphological imaging data that can be promoted by this database.

Principled Representation Learning for Entity Alignment Artificial Intelligence

Embedding-based entity alignment (EEA) has recently received great attention. Despite significant performance improvement, few efforts have been paid to facilitate understanding of EEA methods. Most existing studies rest on the assumption that a small number of pre-aligned entities can serve as anchors connecting the embedding spaces of two KGs. Nevertheless, no one investigates the rationality of such an assumption. To fill the research gap, we define a typical paradigm abstracted from existing EEA methods and analyze how the embedding discrepancy between two potentially aligned entities is implicitly bounded by a predefined margin in the scoring function. Further, we find that such a bound cannot guarantee to be tight enough for alignment learning. We mitigate this problem by proposing a new approach, named NeoEA, to explicitly learn KG-invariant and principled entity embeddings. In this sense, an EEA model not only pursues the closeness of aligned entities based on geometric distance, but also aligns the neural ontologies of two KGs by eliminating the discrepancy in embedding distribution and underlying ontology knowledge. Our experiments demonstrate consistent and significant improvement in performance against the best-performing EEA methods.