"An ontology defines the terms used to describe and represent an area of knowledge. … Ontologies include computer-usable definitions of basic concepts in the domain and the relationships among them."
– from OWL Web Ontology Language Use Cases and Requirements. W3C Recommendation (10 February 2004). Jeff Heflin, editor.
Entity-Relationship (E-R) Modeling is one approach to visualize what story your data is trying to tell. This goal of this predecessor to object modeling (e.g. UML or CRC cards) is to give you a high-level, graphical view of the core components of an enterprise--the E-R diagram. An E-R diagram (sometimes called a Chen diagram, after its creator, Peter Chen) is a conceptual graph that captures meaning rather than implementation . Once you have the diagram, you can convert it to a set of tables.
Here is a trillion dollars question: How to integrate artificial intelligence (AI) into a system software platform? There are numerous operating systems where artificial intelligence could be integrated in Apple's iOS, Google's Android, Microsoft's Windows Phone, BlackBerry's BlackBerry 10, Samsung's/Linux Foundation's Tizen and Jolla's Sailfish OS; macOS, GNU/Linux, computational science software, game engines, industrial automation, and software as a service applications. AI can also be embedded in web browsers such as Internet Explorer, Chrome OS and Firefox OS for smartphones, tablet computers and smart TVs, cloud-based software or specialized classes of operating systems, such as embedded and real-time systems. So, I can give only a cue, while the full answer is in a proprietary white book. Here is an heuristic rule, each problem in science and technology is decided by adding up a new abstraction level.
According to a 2020 report by Emergence, 80% of the global workforce does not sit behind a desk. According to a 2020 report by Emergence, 80% of the global workforce does not sit behind a desk. That’s an overwhelming majority of workers who are deskless and increasingly reliant on technology to do their jobs in industries impacted by factors like the growing skills gap and, most recently, a global pandemic. While employers have done much to address the needs of deskless workers over the past year, there’s untapped opportunity to make these workers – and, in turn, the industries they support – more efficient, resilient, and safe in the current working environment and beyond. On Wednesday, June 23, Rolls Royce’s XXX will join industry experts YYY from PwC and ZZZ from Librestream to teach enterprises about the power of Augmented Reality (AR) and Artificial Intelligence (AI) to enable deskless workers around the world and build knowledge networks capable of sustaining the deskless workforce for decades to come. In this webinar, you will learn: Why traditional deskless worker solutions have fallen short at a time when effective remote collaboration is of peak importance How AR plus AI can improve knowledge sharing among distributed workforces, reduce knowledge loss, eliminate inefficiencies, enhance safety, improve sustainability, lower costs, and more Real-world use cases of AR and AI on devices like Microsoft’s HoloLens and the generated ROI Why organizations with large deskless workforces prefer solutions like Librestream’s AI Connected Expert Vision: Broad device support, specialized accessories, etc. Realizing true IoT: Where AI and AR converge to create the fully connected, deskless worker of tomorrow
This paper introduces our position on the critical issue of bias that recently appeared in AI applications. Specifically, we discuss the combination of current technologies used in AI applications i.e., Machine Learning and Knowledge Graphs, and point to their involvement in (de)biased applications of the C4I domain. Although this is a wider problem that currently emerges from different application domains, bias appears more critical in C4I than in others due to its security-related nature. While proposing certain actions to be taken towards debiasing C4I applications, we acknowledge the immature aspect of this topic within the Knowledge Graph and Semantic Web communities.
Detecting what emotions are expressed in text is a well-studied problem in natural language processing. However, research on finer grained emotion analysis such as what causes an emotion is still in its infancy. We present solutions that tackle both emotion recognition and emotion cause detection in a joint fashion. Considering that common-sense knowledge plays an important role in understanding implicitly expressed emotions and the reasons for those emotions, we propose novel methods that combine common-sense knowledge via adapted knowledge models with multi-task learning to perform joint emotion classification and emotion cause tagging. We show performance improvement on both tasks when including common-sense reasoning and a multitask framework. We provide a thorough analysis to gain insights into model performance.
The intelligent question answering (IQA) system can accurately capture users' search intention by understanding the natural language questions, searching relevant content efficiently from a massive knowledge-base, and returning the answer directly to the user. Since the IQA system can save inestimable time and workforce in data search and reasoning, it has received more and more attention in data science and artificial intelligence. This article introduced a domain knowledge graph using the graph database and graph computing technologies from massive heterogeneous data in electric power. It then proposed an IQA system based on the electrical power knowledge graph to extract the intent and constraints of natural interrogation based on the natural language processing (NLP) method, to construct graph data query statements via knowledge reasoning, and to complete the accurate knowledge search and analysis to provide users with an intuitive visualization. This method thoroughly combined knowledge graph and graph computing characteristics, realized high-speed multi-hop knowledge correlation reasoning analysis in tremendous knowledge. The proposed work can also provide a basis for the context-aware intelligent question and answer.
Ontologies are increasingly used for machine reasoning over the last few years. They can provide explanations of concepts or be used for concept classification if there exists a mapping from the desired labels to the relevant ontology. Another advantage of using ontologies is that they do not need a learning process, meaning that we do not need the train data or time before using them. This paper presents a practical use of an ontology for a classification problem from the financial domain. It first transforms a given ontology to a graph and proceeds with generalization with the aim to find common semantic descriptions of the input sets of financial concepts. We present a solution to the shared task on Learning Semantic Similarities for the Financial Domain (FinSim-2 task). The task is to design a system that can automatically classify concepts from the Financial domain into the most relevant hypernym concept in an external ontology - the Financial Industry Business Ontology. We propose a method that maps given concepts to the mentioned ontology and performs a graph search for the most relevant hypernyms. We also employ a word vectorization method and a machine learning classifier to supplement the method with a ranked list of labels for each concept.
Policies are authoritative assets that are present in multiple domains to support decision-making. They describe what actions are allowed or recommended when domain entities and their attributes satisfy certain criteria. It is common to find policies that contain geographical rules, including distance and containment relationships among named locations. These locations' polygons can often be found encoded in geospatial datasets. We present an approach to transform data from geospatial datasets into Linked Data using the OWL, PROV-O, and GeoSPARQL standards, and to leverage this representation to support automated ontology-based policy decisions. We applied our approach to location-sensitive radio spectrum policies to identify relationships between radio transmitters coordinates and policy-regulated regions in Census.gov datasets. Using a policy evaluation pipeline that mixes OWL reasoning and GeoSPARQL, our approach implements the relevant geospatial relationships, according to a set of requirements elicited by radio spectrum domain experts.
A comprehensive knowledge graph (KG) contains an instance-level entity graph and an ontology-level concept graph. The two-view KG provides a testbed for models to "simulate" human's abilities on knowledge abstraction, concretization, and completion (KACC), which are crucial for human to recognize the world and manage learned knowledge. Existing studies mainly focus on partial aspects of KACC. In order to promote thorough analyses for KACC abilities of models, we propose a unified KG benchmark by improving existing benchmarks in terms of dataset scale, task coverage, and difficulty. Specifically, we collect new datasets that contain larger concept graphs, abundant cross-view links as well as dense entity graphs. Based on the datasets, we propose novel tasks such as multi-hop knowledge abstraction (MKA), multi-hop knowledge concretization (MKC) and then design a comprehensive benchmark. For MKA and MKC tasks, we further annotate multi-hop hierarchical triples as harder samples. The experimental results of existing methods demonstrate the challenges of our benchmark. The resource is available at https://github.com/thunlp/KACC.
Conceptual graphs, which is a particular type of Knowledge Graphs, play an essential role in semantic search. Prior conceptual graph construction approaches typically extract high-frequent, coarse-grained, and time-invariant concepts from formal texts. In real applications, however, it is necessary to extract less-frequent, fine-grained, and time-varying conceptual knowledge and build taxonomy in an evolving manner. In this paper, we introduce an approach to implementing and deploying the conceptual graph at Alibaba. Specifically, We propose a framework called AliCG which is capable of a) extracting fine-grained concepts by a novel bootstrapping with alignment consensus approach, b) mining long-tail concepts with a novel low-resource phrase mining approach, c) updating the graph dynamically via a concept distribution estimation method based on implicit and explicit user behaviors. We have deployed the framework at Alibaba UC Browser. Extensive offline evaluation as well as online A/B testing demonstrate the efficacy of our approach.