"An ontology defines the terms used to describe and represent an area of knowledge. … Ontologies include computer-usable definitions of basic concepts in the domain and the relationships among them."
– from OWL Web Ontology Language Use Cases and Requirements. W3C Recommendation (10 February 2004). Jeff Heflin, editor.
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This paper presents an empirical study aiming at understanding the modeling style and the overall semantic structure of Linked Open Data. We observe how classes, properties and individuals are used in practice. We also investigate how hierarchies of concepts are structured, and how much they are linked. In addition to discussing the results, this paper contributes (i) a conceptual framework, including a set of metrics, which generalises over the observable constructs; (ii) an open source implementation that facilitates its application to other Linked Data knowledge graphs.
In this paper we report on a black-box approach to parallelize existing description logic (DL) reasoners for the Web Ontology Language (OWL). We focus on OWL ontology classification, which is an important inference service and supported by every major OWL/DL reasoner. We propose a flexible parallel framework which can be applied to existing OWL reasoners in order to speed up their classification process. In order to test its performance, we evaluated our framework by parallelizing major OWL reasoners for concept classification. In comparison to the selected black-box reasoner our results demonstrate that the wall clock time of ontology classification can be improved by one order of magnitude for most real-world ontologies.
Generic ontologies were introduced as an extension (Generic DOL) of the Distributed Ontology, Modeling and Specification Language, DOL, with the aim to provide a language for Generic Ontology Design Patterns. In this paper we present a number of new language constructs that increase the expressivity and the generality of Generic DOL, among them sequential and optional parameters, list parameters with recursion, and local sub-patterns. These are illustrated with non-trivial patterns: generic value sets and (nested) qualitatively graded relations, demonstrated as definitional building blocks in an application domain.
There are many characterisations of artificial intelligence (AI), such as Andrew Ng's in the World Intellectual Property Organization's (WIPO) report on Technology Trends 2019 regarding AI. He adds: "I can hardly imagine an industry which is not going to be transformed by AI." Precise definitions, however, are lacking. In order to come to grips with the term it is recommended to distinguish between AI techniques, such as machine learning, logic programming, fuzzy logic, probabilistic reasoning and ontology engineering, functional applications, and AI application fields. Computer vision, natural language processing and speech processing can be mentioned as examples of AI functional applications. The application fields are several, such as networks, life and medical sciences, telecommunications and transportation.
The World Wide Web Consortium (W3C) has published several recommendations for building and storing ontologies, including the most recent OWL 2 Web Ontology Language (OWL). These initiatives have been followed by practical implementations that popularize OWL in various domains. For example, OWL has been used for conceptual modeling in industrial engineering, and its reasoning facilities are used to provide a wealth of services, e.g. model diagnosis, automated code generation, and semantic integration. More specifically, recent studies have shown that OWL is well suited for harmonizing information of engineering tools stored as AutomationML (AML) files. However, OWL and its tools can be cumbersome for direct use by engineers such that an ontology expert is often required in practice. Although much attention has been paid in the literature to overcome this issue by transforming OWL ontologies from/to AML models automatically, dealing with OWL complex classes remains an open research question. In this paper, we introduce the AML concept models for representing OWL complex classes in AutomationML, and present algorithms for the bidirectional translation between OWL complex classes and their corresponding AML concept models. We show that this approach provides an efficient and intuitive interface for nonexperts to visualize, modify, and create OWL complex classes.
Ontology-based data access (OBDA) is a popular paradigm for querying heterogeneous data sources by connecting them through mappings to an ontology. In OBDA, it is often difficult to reconstruct why a tuple occurs in the answer of a query. We address this challenge by enriching OBDA with provenance semirings, taking inspiration from database theory. In particular, we investigate the problems of (i) deciding whether a provenance annotated OBDA instance entails a provenance annotated conjunctive query, and (ii) computing a polynomial representing the provenance of a query entailed by a provenance annotated OBDA instance. Differently from pure databases, in our case these polynomials may be infinite. To regain finiteness, we consider idempotent semirings, and study the complexity in the case of DL-Lite ontologies. We implement Task (ii) in a state-of-the-art OBDA system and show the practical feasibility of the approach through an extensive evaluation against two popular benchmarks.
We investigate the data complexity of answering queries mediated by metric temporal logic ontologies under the event-based semantics assuming that data instances are finite timed words timestamped with binary fractions. We identify classes of ontology-mediated queries answering which can be done in AC0, NC1, L, NL, P, and coNP for data complexity, provide their rewritings to first-order logic and its extensions with primitive recursion, transitive closure or datalog, and establish lower complexity bounds.
Background: Automatic recognition of medical concepts in unstructured text is an important component of many clinical and research applications, and its accuracy has a large impact on electronic health record analysis. The mining of medical concepts is complicated by the broad use of synonyms and nonstandard terms in medical documents. Objective: We present a machine learning model for concept recognition in large unstructured text, which optimizes the use of ontological structures and can identify previously unobserved synonyms for concepts in the ontology. Methods: We present a neural dictionary model that can be used to predict if a phrase is synonymous to a concept in a reference ontology. Our model, called the Neural Concept Recognizer (NCR), uses a convolutional neural network to encode input phrases and then rank medical concepts based on the similarity in that space.
Background. Most tutorial ontologies focus on illustrating one aspect of ontology development, notably language features and automated reasoners, but ignore ontology development factors, such as emergent modelling guidelines and ontological principles. Yet, novices replicate examples from the exercises they carry out. Not providing good examples holistically causes the propagation of sub-optimal ontology development, which may negatively affect the quality of a real domain ontology. Results. We identified 22 requirements that a good tutorial ontology should satisfy regarding subject domain, logics and reasoning, and engineering aspects. We developed a set of ontologies about African Wildlife to serve as tutorial ontologies. A majority of the requirements have been met with the set of African Wildlife Ontology tutorial ontologies, which are introduced in this paper. The African Wildlife Ontology is mature and has been used yearly in an ontology engineering course or tutorial since 2010 and is included in a recent ontology engineering textbook with relevant examples and exercises. Conclusion. The African Wildlife Ontology provides a wide range of options concerning examples and exercises for ontology engineering well beyond illustrating only language features and automated reasoning. It assists in demonstrating tasks about ontology quality, such as alignment to a foundational ontology and satisfying competency questions, versioning, and multilingual ontologies.