Ontologies

Mapping paradigm ontologies to and from the brain

Due to the nature of the individual experiments, based on eliciting neural response from a small number of stimuli, this link is incomplete, and unidirectional from the causal point of view. To come to conclusions on the function implied by the activation of brain regions, it is necessary to combine a wide exploration of the various brain functions and some inversion of the statistical inference. Here we introduce a methodology for accumulating knowledge towards a bidirectional link between observed brain activity and the corresponding function. We rely on a large corpus of imaging studies and a predictive engine. Technically, the challenges are to find commonality between the studies without denaturing the richness of the corpus.

Learning a Concept Hierarchy from Multi-labeled Documents

While topic models can discover patterns of word usage in large corpora, it is difficult to meld this unsupervised structure with noisy, human-provided labels, especially when the label space is large. In this paper, we present a model-Label to Hierarchy (L2H)-that can induce a hierarchy of user-generated labels and the topics associated with those labels from a set of multi-labeled documents. The model is robust enough to account for missing labels from untrained, disparate annotators and provide an interpretable summary of an otherwise unwieldy label set. We show empirically the effectiveness of L2H in predicting held-out words and labels for unseen documents. Papers published at the Neural Information Processing Systems Conference.

Ontology for Scenarios for the Assessment of Automated Vehicles

The development of assessment methods for the performance of Automated Vehicles (AVs) is essential to enable and speed up the deployment of automated driving technologies, due to the complex operational domain of AVs. As traditional methods for assessing vehicles are not applicable for AVs, other approaches have been proposed. Among these, real-world scenario-based assessment is widely supported by many players in the automotive field. In this approach, test cases are derived from real-world scenarios that are obtained from driving data. To minimize any ambiguity regarding these test cases and scenarios, a clear definition of the notion of scenario is required. In this paper, we propose a more concrete definition of scenario, compared to what is known to the authors from the literature. This is achieved by proposing an ontology in which the quantitative building blocks of a scenario are defined. An example illustrates that the presented ontology is applicable for scenario-based assessment of AVs.

An Ontology-Aware Framework for Audio Event Classification

Recent advancements in audio event classification often ignore the structure and relation between the label classes available as prior information. This structure can be defined by ontology and augmented in the classifier as a form of domain knowledge. To capture such dependencies between the labels, we propose an ontology-aware neural network containing two components: feed-forward ontology layers and graph convolutional networks (GCN). The feed-forward ontology layers capture the intra-dependencies of labels between different levels of ontology. On the other hand, GCN mainly models inter-dependency structure of labels within an ontology level. The framework is evaluated on two benchmark datasets for single-label and multi-label audio event classification tasks. The results demonstrate the proposed solutions efficacy to capture and explore the ontology relations and improve the classification performance.

The SPECIAL-K Personal Data Processing Transparency and Compliance Platform

Primary obligations include obtaining explicit consent from the data subject for the processing of personal data and providing full transparency with respect to processing and sharing. With the coming into effect of the GDPR in May 2018, several tools [11, 16, 19] have recently been developed that can be used to assist companies to assess the compliance of their systems and processes with respect to obligations set forth in the GDPR. However, such tools are targeted at self assessment (i.e. companies complete standard questionnaires in the form of a privacy impact assessment) and cannot be used to automatically check compliance with usage constraints. Such, automated transparency and compliance mechanisms would require not only machine-readable representations of the users consent, but also machine-readable representations of data processing and sharing. SPECIAL 1 is an EU H2020 research and innovation action, which addresses these challenges by demonstrating how Semantic Web technologies can be used for both consent and personal data processing representation and compliance checking. In particular we devise a suite of ontologies and vocabularies that can be used to: (i) model data usage policies, conforming the SPECIAL's Usage Policy Language, (ii) represent data processing and sharing events in a semantic log. Both of which have been developed in close collaboration with legal experts, thus ensuring that our automated compliance checking is tightly coupled with the legal assessment process.1 https://www.specialprivacy.eu/ 1 arXiv:2001.09461v1

On Expansion and Contraction of DL-Lite Knowledge Bases

Knowledge bases (KBs) are not static entities: new information constantly appears and some of the previous knowledge becomes obsolete. In order to reflect this evolution of knowledge, KBs should be expanded with the new knowledge and contracted from the obsolete one. This problem is well-studied for propositional but much less for first-order KBs. In this work we investigate knowledge expansion and contraction for KBs expressed in DL-Lite, a family of description logics (DLs) that underlie the tractable fragment OWL 2 QL of the Web Ontology Language OWL 2. We start with a novel knowledge evolution framework and natural postulates that evolution should respect, and compare our postulates to the well-established AGM postulates. We then review well-known model and formula-based approaches for expansion and contraction for propositional theories and show how they can be adapted to the case of DL-Lite. In particular, we show intrinsic limitations of model-based approaches: besides the fact that some of them do not respect the postulates we have established, they ignore the structural properties of KBs. This leads to undesired properties of evolution results: evolution of DL-Lite KBs cannot be captured in DL-Lite. Moreover, we show that well-known formula-based approaches are also not appropriate for DL-Lite expansion and contraction: they either have a high complexity of computation, or they produce logical theories that cannot be expressed in DL-Lite. Thus, we propose a novel formula-based approach that respects our principles and for which evolution is expressible in DL-Lite. For this approach we also propose polynomial time deterministic algorithms to compute evolution of DL-Lite KBs when evolution affects only factual data.

A Journey into Ontology Approximation: From Non-Horn to Hon

We study complete approximations of an ontology formulated in a non-Horn description logic (DL) such as $\mathcal{ALC}$ in a Horn DL such as~$\mathcal{EL}$. We provide concrete approximation schemes that are necessarily infinite and observe that in the $\mathcal{ELU}$-to-$\mathcal{EL}$ case finite approximations tend to exist in practice and are guaranteed to exist when the original ontology is acyclic. In contrast, neither of this is the case for $\mathcal{ELU}_\bot$-to-$\mathcal{EL}_\bot$ and for $\mathcal{ALC}$-to-$\mathcal{EL}_\bot$ approximations. We also define a notion of approximation tailored towards ontology-mediated querying, connect it to subsumption-based approximations, and identify a case where finite approximations are guaranteed to exist.

A Neural Architecture for Person Ontology population

A person ontology comprising concepts, attributes and relationships of people has a number of applications in data protection, de-identification, population of knowledge graphs for business intelligence and fraud prevention. While artificial neural networks have led to improvements in Entity Recognition, Entity Classification, and Relation Extraction, creating an ontology largely remains a manual process, because it requires a fixed set of semantic relations between concepts. In this work, we present a system for automatically populating a person ontology graph from unstructured data using neural models for Entity Classification and Relation Extraction. We introduce a new dataset for these tasks and discuss our results. Introduction We can define Personal Data Entity (PDE) as any information about a person.

Provenance for the Description Logic ELHr

We address the problem of handling provenance information in ELHr ontologies. We consider a setting recently introduced for ontology-based data access, based on semirings and extending classical data provenance, in which ontology axioms are annotated with provenance tokens. A consequence inherits the provenance of the axioms involved in deriving it, yielding a provenance polynomial as an annotation. We analyse the semantics for the ELHr case and show that the presence of conjunctions poses various difficulties for handling provenance, some of which are mitigated by assuming multiplicative idempotency of the semiring. Under this assumption, we study three problems: ontology completion with provenance, computing the set of relevant axioms for a consequence, and query answering.

Domain-Aware Dialogue State Tracker for Multi-Domain Dialogue Systems

In such systems the dialogue state tracker (DST) is a core component, aimed to maintain a distribution over the dialogue states based on the dialogue history. A dialogue state at any turn t in the dialogue is typically represented as a set of slot-value pairs, such as ( price, moderate) or ( food, italian) in the context of restaurant reservation. The goal of the DST is to determine the user's intent and the user's goal during the dialogue and represent them as such slot-value pairs. The downstream components of a dialogue system (e.g the dialogue manager) that are responsible to choose the next system action, rely on an accurate DST for an effective dialogue strategy. Because of the importance of DST in dialogue systems, their development attracted lots of research both in academia and industry. Typical dialogue systems are modeled for a fixed ontology consisting of a single domain (Mrk ˇ si c et al. 2017; Zhong, Xiong, and Socher 2018; Ren et al. 2018), and the domain ontology schema defines intents, slots and values for each slot of the domain.