"An ontology defines the terms used to describe and represent an area of knowledge. … Ontologies include computer-usable definitions of basic concepts in the domain and the relationships among them."
– from OWL Web Ontology Language Use Cases and Requirements. W3C Recommendation (10 February 2004). Jeff Heflin, editor.
We provide an ultimately fine-grained analysis of the data complexity and rewritability of ontology-mediated queries (OMQs) based on an EL ontology and a conjunctive query (CQ). Our main results are that every such OMQ is in AC0, NL-complete, or PTime-complete and that containment in NL coincides with rewritability into linear Datalog (whereas containment in AC0 coincides with rewritability into first-order logic). We establish natural characterizations of the three cases in terms of bounded depth and (un)bounded pathwidth, and show that every of the associated meta problems such as deciding wether a given OMQ is rewritable into linear Datalog is ExpTime-complete. We also give a way to construct linear Datalog rewritings when they exist and prove that there is no constant Datalog rewritings.
Web Ontology Language (OWL) reasoners are used to infer new logical relations from ontologies. While inferring new facts, these reasoners can be further optimized, e.g., by properly ordering disjuncts in disjunction expressions of ontologies for satisfiability testing of concepts. Different expansion-ordering heuristics have been developed for this purpose. The built-in heuristics in these reasoners determine the order for branches in search trees while each heuristic choice causes different effects for various ontologies depending on the ontologies' syntactic structure and probably other features as well. A learning-based approach that takes into account the features aims to select an appropriate expansion-ordering heuristic for each ontology. The proper choice is expected to accelerate the reasoning process for the reasoners. In this paper, the effect of our methodology is investigated on a well-known reasoner that is JFact. Our experiments show the average speedup by a factor of one to two orders of magnitude for satisfiability testing after applying learning methodology for selecting the right expansion-ordering heuristics.
Automated planning technology has developed significantly. Designing a planning model that allows an automated agent to be capable of reacting intelligently to unexpected events in a real execution environment yet remains a challenge. This article describes a domain-independent approach to allow the agent to be context-aware of its execution environment and the task it performs, acquire new information that is guaranteed to be related and more importantly manageable, and integrate such information into its model through the use of ontologies and semantic operations to autonomously formulate new objectives, resulting in a more human-like behaviour for handling unexpected events in the context of opportunities.
Big data solutions are designed to cope with data of huge Volume and wide Variety, that need to be ingested at high Velocity and have potential Veracity issues, challenging characteristics that are usually referred to as the "4Vs of Big Data". In order to evaluate possibly complex big data solutions, stress tests require to assess a large number of combinations of sub-components jointly with the possible big data variations. A formalization of the Design of Experiments (DoE) on big data solutions is aimed at ensuring the reproducibility of the experiments, facilitating their partitioning in sub-experiments and guaranteeing the consistency of their outcomes in a global assessment. In this paper, an ontology-based approach is proposed to support the evaluation of a big data system in two ways. Firstly, the approach formalizes a decomposition and recombination of the big data solution, allowing for the aggregation of component evaluation results at inter-component level. Secondly, existing work on DoE is translated into an ontology for supporting the selection of experiments. The proposed ontology-based approach offers the possibility to combine knowledge from the evaluation domain and the application domain. It exploits domain and inter-domain specific restrictions on the factor combinations in order to reduce the number of experiments. Contrary to existing approaches, the proposed use of ontologies is not limited to the assertional description and exploitation of past experiments but offers richer terminological descriptions for the development of a DoE from scratch. As an application example, a maritime big data solution to the problem of detecting and predicting vessel suspicious behaviour through mobility analysis is selected. The article is concluded with a sketch of future works.
Within Reinforcement Learning, there is a fledgling approach to conceptualizing the environment in terms of predictions. Central to this predictive approach is the assertion that it is possible to construct ontologies in terms of predictions about sensation, behaviour, and time---to categorize the world into entities which express all aspects of the world using only predictions. This construction of ontologies is integral to predictive approaches to machine knowledge where objects are described exclusively in terms of how they are perceived. In this paper, we ground the Pericean model of semiotics in terms of Reinforcement Learning Methods, describing Peirce's Three Categories in the notation of General Value Functions. Using the Peircean model of semiotics, we demonstrate that predictions alone are insufficient to construct an ontology; however, we identify predictions as being integral to the meaning-making process. Moreover, we discuss how predictive knowledge provides a particularly stable foundation for semiosis\textemdash the process of making meaning\textemdash and suggest a possible avenue of research to design algorithmic methods which construct semantics and meaning using predictions.
Considering the evolution of the semantic wiki engine based platforms, two main approaches could be distinguished: Ontologies for Wikis (OfW) and Wikis for Ontologies (WfO). OfW vision requires existing ontologies to be imported. Most of them use the RDF-based (Resource Description Framework) systems in conjunction with the standard SQL (Structured Query Language) database to manage and query semantic data. But, relational database is not an ideal type of storage for semantic data. A more natural data model for SMW (Semantic MediaWiki) is RDF, a data format that organizes information in graphs rather than in fixed database tables. This paper presents an ontology based architecture, which aims to implement this idea. The architecture mainly includes three layered functional architectures: Web User Interface Layer, Semantic Layer and Persistence Layer. Introduction This research study is set in an African context, where the main problem is an economic, social development and the means to achieve it. Indeed, after the failure of several development models in the recent decades, theoretical research seems to be turning to the development knowledgebased approaches (UNESCO, 2014). The place of knowledge, science and technology in the current dynamics of growth gives rise to intensify the reflection within the economic field.
Pattern-based, modular ontologies have several beneficial properties that lend themselves to FAIR data practices, especially as it pertains to Interoperability and Reusability. However, developing such ontologies has a high upfront cost, e.g. reusing a pattern is predicated upon being aware of its existence in the first place. Thus, to help overcome these barriers, we have developed MODL: a modular ontology design library. MODL is a curated collection of well-documented ontology design patterns, drawn from a wide variety of interdisciplinary use-cases. In this paper we present MODL as a resource, discuss its use, and provide some examples of its contents.
Approaches to goal-directed behaviour including online planning and opportunistic planning tackle a change in the environment by generating alternative goals to avoid failures or seize opportunities. However, current approaches only address unanticipated changes related to objects or object types already defined in the planning task that is being solved. This article describes a domain-independent approach that advances the state of the art by extending the knowledge of a planning task with relevant objects of new types. The approach draws upon the use of ontologies, semantic measures, and ontology alignment to accommodate newly acquired data that trigger the formulation of goal opportunities inducing a better-valued plan.
Real-world semantic or knowledge-based systems, e.g., in the biomedical domain, can become large and complex. Tool support for the localization and repair of faults within knowledge bases of such systems can therefore be essential for their practical success. Correspondingly, a number of knowledge base debugging approaches, in particular for ontology-based systems, were proposed throughout recent years. Query-based debugging is a comparably recent interactive approach that localizes the true cause of an observed problem by asking knowledge engineers a series of questions. Concrete implementations of this approach exist, such as the OntoDebug plug-in for the ontology editor Prot\'eg\'e. To validate that a newly proposed method is favorable over an existing one, researchers often rely on simulation-based comparisons. Such an evaluation approach however has certain limitations and often cannot fully inform us about a method's true usefulness. We therefore conducted different user studies to assess the practical value of query-based ontology debugging. One main insight from the studies is that the considered interactive approach is indeed more efficient than an alternative algorithmic debugging based on test cases. We also observed that users frequently made errors in the process, which highlights the importance of a careful design of the queries that users need to answer.
When ontologies reach a certain size and complexity, faults such as inconsistencies, unsatisfiable classes or wrong entailments are hardly avoidable. Locating the incorrect axioms that cause these faults is a hard and time-consuming task. Addressing this issue, several techniques for semi-automatic fault localization in ontologies have been proposed. Often, these approaches involve a human expert who provides answers to system-generated questions about the intended (correct) ontology in order to reduce the possible fault locations. To suggest as informative questions as possible, existing methods draw on various algorithmic optimizations as well as heuristics. However, these computations are often based on certain assumptions about the interacting user. In this work, we characterize and discuss different user types and show that existing approaches do not achieve optimal efficiency for all of them. As a remedy, we suggest a new type of expert question which aims at fitting the answering behavior of all analyzed experts. Moreover, we present an algorithm to optimize this new query type which is fully compatible with the (tried and tested) heuristics used in the field. Experiments on faulty real-world ontologies show the potential of the new querying method for minimizing the expert consultation time, independent of the expert type. Besides, the gained insights can inform the design of interactive debugging tools towards better meeting their users' needs.