"An ontology defines the terms used to describe and represent an area of knowledge. … Ontologies include computer-usable definitions of basic concepts in the domain and the relationships among them."
– from OWL Web Ontology Language Use Cases and Requirements. W3C Recommendation (10 February 2004). Jeff Heflin, editor.
An RDF statement expresses a relationship between two resources. The subject and the object represent the two resources being related; the predicate represents the nature of their relationship. The relationship is phrased in a directional way (from subject to object) and is called an RDF property. RDF allows us to communicate much more than just words; it allows us to communicate data that can be understood by machines as well as people. In this tutorial, we'll do the RDF Processing in Python with RDFLib.
Recent approaches of computer vision utilize deep learning methods as they perform quite well if training and testing domains follow the same underlying data distribution. However, it has been shown that minor variations in the images that occur when using these methods in the real world can lead to unpredictable errors. Transfer learning is the area of machine learning that tries to prevent these errors. Especially, approaches that augment image data using auxiliary knowledge encoded in language embeddings or knowledge graphs (KGs) have achieved promising results in recent years. This survey focuses on visual transfer learning approaches using KGs. KGs can represent auxiliary knowledge either in an underlying graph-structured schema or in a vector-based knowledge graph embedding. Intending to enable the reader to solve visual transfer learning problems with the help of specific KG-DL configurations we start with a description of relevant modeling structures of a KG of various expressions, such as directed labeled graphs, hypergraphs, and hyper-relational graphs. We explain the notion of feature extractor, while specifically referring to visual and semantic features. We provide a broad overview of knowledge graph embedding methods and describe several joint training objectives suitable to combine them with high dimensional visual embeddings. The main section introduces four different categories on how a KG can be combined with a DL pipeline: 1) Knowledge Graph as a Reviewer; 2) Knowledge Graph as a Trainee; 3) Knowledge Graph as a Trainer; and 4) Knowledge Graph as a Peer. To help researchers find evaluation benchmarks, we provide an overview of generic KGs and a set of image processing datasets and benchmarks including various types of auxiliary knowledge. Last, we summarize related surveys and give an outlook about challenges and open issues for future research.
Besides entity-centric knowledge, usually organized as Knowledge Graph (KG), events are also an essential kind of knowledge in the world, which trigger the spring up of event-centric knowledge representation form like Event KG (EKG). It plays an increasingly important role in many machine learning and artificial intelligence applications, such as intelligent search, question-answering, recommendation, and text generation. This paper provides a comprehensive survey of EKG from history, ontology, instance, and application views. Specifically, to characterize EKG thoroughly, we focus on its history, definitions, schema induction, acquisition, related representative graphs/systems, and applications. The development processes and trends are studied therein. We further summarize perspective directions to facilitate future research on EKG.
Machine learning methods especially deep neural networks have achieved great success but many of them often rely on a number of labeled samples for training. In real-world applications, we often need to address sample shortage due to e.g., dynamic contexts with emerging prediction targets and costly sample annotation. Therefore, low-resource learning, which aims to learn robust prediction models with no enough resources (especially training samples), is now being widely investigated. Among all the low-resource learning studies, many prefer to utilize some auxiliary information in the form of Knowledge Graph (KG), which is becoming more and more popular for knowledge representation, to reduce the reliance on labeled samples. In this survey, we very comprehensively reviewed over $90$ papers about KG-aware research for two major low-resource learning settings -- zero-shot learning (ZSL) where new classes for prediction have never appeared in training, and few-shot learning (FSL) where new classes for prediction have only a small number of labeled samples that are available. We first introduced the KGs used in ZSL and FSL studies as well as the existing and potential KG construction solutions, and then systematically categorized and summarized KG-aware ZSL and FSL methods, dividing them into different paradigms such as the mapping-based, the data augmentation, the propagation-based and the optimization-based. We next presented different applications, including not only KG augmented tasks in Computer Vision and Natural Language Processing (e.g., image classification, text classification and knowledge extraction), but also tasks for KG curation (e.g., inductive KG completion), and some typical evaluation resources for each task. We eventually discussed some challenges and future directions on aspects such as new learning and reasoning paradigms, and the construction of high quality KGs.
Narrative cartography is a discipline which studies the interwoven nature of stories and maps. However, conventional geovisualization techniques of narratives often encounter several prominent challenges, including the data acquisition & integration challenge and the semantic challenge. To tackle these challenges, in this paper, we propose the idea of narrative cartography with knowledge graphs (KGs). Firstly, to tackle the data acquisition & integration challenge, we develop a set of KG-based GeoEnrichment toolboxes to allow users to search and retrieve relevant data from integrated cross-domain knowledge graphs for narrative mapping from within a GISystem. With the help of this tool, the retrieved data from KGs are directly materialized in a GIS format which is ready for spatial analysis and mapping. Two use cases - Magellan's expedition and World War II - are presented to show the effectiveness of this approach. In the meantime, several limitations are identified from this approach, such as data incompleteness, semantic incompatibility, and the semantic challenge in geovisualization. For the later two limitations, we propose a modular ontology for narrative cartography, which formalizes both the map content (Map Content Module) and the geovisualization process (Cartography Module). We demonstrate that, by representing both the map content and the geovisualization process in KGs (an ontology), we can realize both data reusability and map reproducibility for narrative cartography.
The increasing importance of resource-efficient production entails that manufacturing companies have to create a more dynamic production environment, with flexible manufacturing machines and processes. To fully utilize this potential of dynamic manufacturing through automatic production planning, formal skill descriptions of the machines are essential. However, generating those skill descriptions in a manual fashion is labor-intensive and requires extensive domain-knowledge. In this contribution an ontology-based semi-automatic skill description system that utilizes production logs and industrial ontologies through inductive logic programming is introduced and benefits and drawbacks of the proposed solution are evaluated.
Considering a collection of RDF triples, the RDF-to-text generation task aims to generate a text description. Most previous methods solve this task using a sequence-to-sequence model or using a graph-based model to encode RDF triples and to generate a text sequence. Nevertheless, these approaches fail to clearly model the local and global structural information between and within RDF triples. Moreover, the previous methods also face the non-negligible problem of low faithfulness of the generated text, which seriously affects the overall performance of these models. To solve these problems, we propose a model combining two new graph-augmented structural neural encoders to jointly learn both local and global structural information in the input RDF triples. To further improve text faithfulness, we innovatively introduce a reinforcement learning (RL) reward based on information extraction (IE). We first extract triples from the generated text using a pretrained IE model and regard the correct number of the extracted triples as the additional RL reward. Experimental results on two benchmark datasets demonstrate that our proposed model outperforms the state-of-the-art baselines, and the additional reinforcement learning reward does help to improve the faithfulness of the generated text.
The major objective of this work is to study and report the existing ontology-driven models for narrative information. The paper aims to analyze these models across various domains. The goal of this work is to bring the relevant literature, and ontology models under one umbrella, and perform a parametric comparative study. A systematic literature review methodology was adopted for an extensive literature selection. A random stratified sampling technique was used to select the models from the literature. The findings explicate a comparative view of the narrative models across domains. The differences and similarities of knowledge representation across domains, in case of narrative information models based on ontology was identified. There are significantly fewer studies that reviewed the ontology-based narrative models. This work goes a step further by evaluating the ontologies using the parameters from narrative components. This paper will explore the basic concepts and top-level concepts in the models. Besides, this study provides a comprehensive study of the narrative theories in the context of ongoing research. The findings of this work demonstrate the similarities and differences among the elements of the ontology across domains. It also identifies the state of the art literature for ontology-based narrative information.
In this paper we present a textual description, in terms of Description Logics, of the BPMN Ontology, which provides a clear semantic formalisation of the structural components of the Business Process Modelling Notation (BPMN), based on the latest stable BPMN specifications from OMG [BPMN Version 1.1 -- January 2008]. The development of the ontology was guided by the description of the complete set of BPMN Element Attributes and Types contained in Annex B of the BPMN specifications.
We propose a novel framework named ViOCE that integrates ontology-based background knowledge in the form of $n$-ball concept embeddings into a neural network based vision architecture. The approach consists of two components - converting symbolic knowledge of an ontology into continuous space by learning n-ball embeddings that capture properties of subsumption and disjointness, and guiding the training and inference of a vision model using the learnt embeddings. We evaluate ViOCE using the task of few-shot image classification, where it demonstrates superior performance on two standard benchmarks.