Ontologies: Overviews


Commonsense Reasoning Using WordNet and SUMO: a Detailed Analysis

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

We describe a detailed analysis of a sample of large benchmark of commonsense reasoning problems that has been automatically obtained from WordNet, SUMO and their mapping. The objective is to provide a better assessment of the quality of both the benchmark and the involved knowledge resources for advanced commonsense reasoning tasks. By means of this analysis, we are able to detect some knowledge misalignments, mapping errors and lack of knowledge and resources. Our final objective is the extraction of some guidelines towards a better exploitation of this commonsense knowledge framework by the improvement of the included resources.


Incorporating Domain Knowledge into Medical NLI using Knowledge Graphs

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

Recently, biomedical version of embeddings obtained from language models such as BioELMo have shown state-of-the-art results for the textual inference task in the medical domain. In this paper, we explore how to incorporate structured domain knowledge, available in the form of a knowledge graph (UMLS), for the Medical NLI task. Specifically, we experiment with fusing embeddings obtained from knowledge graph with the state-of-the-art approaches for NLI task (ESIM model). We also experiment with fusing the domain-specific sentiment information for the task. Experiments conducted on MedNLI dataset clearly show that this strategy improves the baseline BioELMo architecture for the Medical NLI task.


The sameAs Problem: A Survey on Identity Management in the Web of Data

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

In a decentralised knowledge representation system such as the W eb of Data, it is common and indeed desirable for different knowledge graphs to overlap. Whenever multiple names are used to denote the same thing, owl:sameAs statements are needed in order to link the data and foster reuse. Whilst the deductive value of such identity statements can be extremely useful in enhancing various knowledge-based systems, incorrect use of identity can have wide-ranging effects in a global knowledge space like the W eb of Data. With several works already proven that identity in the W eb is broken, this survey investigates the current state of this "sameAs problem". An open discussion highlights the main weaknesses suffered by solutions in the literature, and draws open challenges to be faced in the future.


A Framework for Evaluating Agricultural Ontologies

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

An ontology is a formal representation of domain knowledge, which can be interpreted by machines. In recent years, ontologies have become a major tool for domain knowledge representation and a core component of many knowledge management systems, decision support systems and other intelligent systems, inter alia, in the context of agriculture. A review of the existing literature on agricultural ontologies, however, reveals that most of the studies, which propose agricultural ontologies, are lacking an explicit evaluation procedure. This is undesired because without well-structured evaluation processes, it is difficult to consider the value of ontologies to research and practice. Moreover, it is difficult to rely on such ontologies and share them on the Semantic Web or between semantic aware applications. With the growing number of ontology-based agricultural systems and the increasing popularity of the Semantic Web, it becomes essential that such development and evaluation methods are put forward to guide future efforts of ontology development. Our work contributes to the literature on agricultural ontologies, by presenting a method for evaluating agricultural ontologies, which seems to be missing from most existing studies on agricultural ontologies. The framework supports the matching of appropriate evaluation methods for a given ontology based on the ontology's purpose.


A Framework for Parallelizing OWL Classification in Description Logic Reasoners

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

In this paper we report on a black-box approach to parallelize existing description logic (DL) reasoners for the Web Ontology Language (OWL). We focus on OWL ontology classification, which is an important inference service and supported by every major OWL/DL reasoner. We propose a flexible parallel framework which can be applied to existing OWL reasoners in order to speed up their classification process. In order to test its performance, we evaluated our framework by parallelizing major OWL reasoners for concept classification. In comparison to the selected black-box reasoner our results demonstrate that the wall clock time of ontology classification can be improved by one order of magnitude for most real-world ontologies.


DIALOG: A framework for modeling, analysis and reuse of digital forensic knowledge

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

This paper presents DIALOG (Digital Investigation Ontology); a framework for the management, reuse, and analysis of Digital Investigation knowledge. DIALOG provides a general, application independent vocabulary that can be used to describe an investigation at different levels of detail. DIALOG is defined to encapsulate all concepts of the digital forensics field and the relationships between them. In particular, we concentrate on the Windows Registry, where registry keys are modeled in terms of both their structure and function. Registry analysis software tools are modeled in a similar manner and we illustrate how the interpretation of their results can be done using the reasoning capabilities of ontology


IEDM, an Ontology for Irradiation Experiment Data Management

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

Irradiation experiments (IE) are an essential step in the development of High-Energy Physics (HEP) particle accelerators and detectors. They assess the radiation hardness of materials used in HEP experimental devices by simulating, in a short time, the common long-term degradation effects due to their bombardment by high-energy particles. IEs are also used in other scientific and industrial fields such as medicine (e.g., for cancer treatment, medical imaging, etc.), space/avionics (e.g., for radiation testing of payload equipment) as well as in industry (e.g., for food sterilization). Usually carried out with ionizing radiation, these complex processes require highly specialized infrastructures: the irradiation facilities. Currently, hundreds of such facilities exist worldwide. To help develop best practices and promote computer-assisted handling and management of IEs, we introduce IEDM, a new OWL-based Irradiation Experiment Data Management ontology. This paper provides an overview of the classes and properties of IEDM. Since one of the key design choices for IEDM was to maximize the reuse of existing foundational ontologies such as the Ontology of Scientific Experiments (EXPO), the Ontology of Units of Measure (OM) and the Friend-of-a-Friend Ontology (FOAF), we discuss the methodological issues of the integration of IEDM with these imported ontologies. We illustrate the use of IEDM via an actual IE recently performed at IRRAD, the CERN proton irradiation facility. Finally, we discuss other motivations for this work, including the use of IEDM for the generation of user interfaces for IE management, and their impact on our methodology.


Computing and Explaining Query Answers over Inconsistent DL-Lite Knowledge Bases

Journal of Artificial Intelligence Research

Several inconsistency-tolerant semantics have been introduced for querying inconsistent description logic knowledge bases. The first contribution of this paper is a practical approach for computing the query answers under three well-known such semantics, namely the AR, IAR and brave semantics, in the lightweight description logic DL-LiteR. We show that query answering under the intractable AR semantics can be performed efficiently by using IAR and brave semantics as tractable approximations and encoding the AR entailment problem as a propositional satisfiability (SAT) problem. The second issue tackled in this work is explaining why a tuple is a (non-)answer to a query under these semantics. We define explanations for positive and negative answers under the brave, AR and IAR semantics. We then study the computational properties of explanations in DL-LiteR. For each type of explanation, we analyze the data complexity of recognizing (preferred) explanations and deciding if a given assertion is relevant or necessary. We establish tight connections between intractable explanation problems and variants of SAT, enabling us to generate explanations by exploiting solvers for Boolean satisfaction and optimization problems. Finally, we empirically study the efficiency of our query answering and explanation framework using a benchmark we built upon the well-established LUBM benchmark.


Ontology Matching Techniques: A Gold Standard Model

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

Typically an ontology matching technique is a combination of much different type of matchers operating at various abstraction levels such as structure, semantic, syntax, instance etc. An ontology matching technique which employs matchers at all possible abstraction levels is expected to give, in general, best results in terms of precision, recall and F-measure due to improvement in matching opportunities and if we discount efficiency issues which may improve with better computing resources such as parallel processing. A gold standard ontology matching model is derived from a model classification of ontology matching techniques. A suitable metric is also defined based on gold standard ontology matching model. A review of various ontology matching techniques specified in recent research papers in the area was undertaken to categorize an ontology matching technique as per newly proposed gold standard model and a metric value for the whole group was computed. The results of the above study support proposed gold standard ontology matching model.


Knowledge-Based Transfer Learning Explanation

AAAI Conferences

Machine learning explanation can significantly boost machine learning's application in decision making,but the usability of current methods is limited in human-centric explanation,especially for transfer learning,an important machine learning branch that aims at utilizing knowledge from one learning domain (i.e., a pair of dataset and prediction task) to enhance prediction model training in another learning domain.In this paper, we propose an ontology-based approach for human-centric explanation of transfer learning. Three kinds of knowledge-based explanatory evidence, with different granularities, including general factors, particular narrators and core contexts are first proposedand then inferred with both local ontologies and external knowledge bases.The evaluation with US flight data and DBpedia has presented their confidence and availability in explaining the transferability of feature representation in flight departure delay forecasting.