Supervised Learning

Nonparametric Contextual Bandits in Metric Spaces with Unknown Metric

Neural Information Processing Systems

Suppose that there is a large set of arms, yet there is a simple but unknown structure amongst the arm reward functions, e.g. We present a novel algorithm which learns data-driven similarities amongst the arms, in order to implement adaptive partitioning of the context-arm space for more efficient learning. We provide regret bounds along with simulations that highlight the algorithm's dependence on the local geometry of the reward functions. Papers published at the Neural Information Processing Systems Conference.

Search-Guided, Lightly-Supervised Training of Structured Prediction Energy Networks

Neural Information Processing Systems

In structured output prediction tasks, labeling ground-truth training output is often expensive. However, for many tasks, even when the true output is unknown, we can evaluate predictions using a scalar reward function, which may be easily assembled from human knowledge or non-differentiable pipelines. But searching through the entire output space to find the best output with respect to this reward function is typically intractable. In this paper, we instead use efficient truncated randomized search in this reward function to train structured prediction energy networks (SPENs), which provide efficient test-time inference using gradient-based search on a smooth, learned representation of the score landscape, and have previously yielded state-of-the-art results in structured prediction. In particular, this truncated randomized search in the reward function yields previously unknown local improvements, providing effective supervision to SPENs, avoiding their traditional need for labeled training data.

Structured Prediction with Projection Oracles

Neural Information Processing Systems

We propose in this paper a general framework for deriving loss functions for structured prediction. In our framework, the user chooses a convex set including the output space and provides an oracle for projecting onto that set. Given that oracle, our framework automatically generates a corresponding convex and smooth loss function. As we show, adding a projection as output layer provably makes the loss smaller. We identify the marginal polytope, the output space's convex hull, as the best convex set on which to project.

Graph Structured Prediction Energy Networks

Neural Information Processing Systems

For joint inference over multiple variables, a variety of structured prediction techniques have been developed to model correlations among variables and thereby improve predictions. However, many classical approaches suffer from one of two primary drawbacks: they either lack the ability to model high-order correlations among variables while maintaining computationally tractable inference, or they do not allow to explicitly model known correlations. To address this shortcoming, we introduce'Graph Structured Prediction Energy Networks,' for which we develop inference techniques that allow to both model explicit local and implicit higher-order correlations while maintaining tractability of inference. We apply the proposed method to tasks from the natural language processing and computer vision domain and demonstrate its general utility. Papers published at the Neural Information Processing Systems Conference.

Localized Structured Prediction

Neural Information Processing Systems

Key to structured prediction is exploiting the problem's structure to simplify the learning process. A major challenge arises when data exhibit a local structure (i.e., are made by parts'') that can be leveraged to better approximate the relation between (parts of) the input and (parts of) the output. Recent literature on signal processing, and in particular computer vision, shows that capturing these aspects is indeed essential to achieve state-of-the-art performance. However, in this context algorithms are typically derived on a case-by-case basis. In this work we propose the first theoretical framework to deal with part-based data from a general perspective and study a novel method within the setting of statistical learning theory.

Beyond Vector Spaces: Compact Data Representation as Differentiable Weighted Graphs

Neural Information Processing Systems

Learning useful representations is a key ingredient to the success of modern machine learning. Currently, representation learning mostly relies on embedding data into Euclidean space. However, recent work has shown that data in some domains is better modeled by non-euclidean metric spaces, and inappropriate geometry can result in inferior performance. In this paper, we aim to eliminate the inductive bias imposed by the embedding space geometry. Namely, we propose to map data into more general non-vector metric spaces: a weighted graph with a shortest path distance.

Exact inference in structured prediction

Neural Information Processing Systems

Structured prediction can be thought of as a simultaneous prediction of multiple labels. This is often done by maximizing a score function on the space of labels, which decomposes as a sum of pairwise and unary potentials. The above is naturally modeled with a graph, where edges and vertices are related to pairwise and unary potentials, respectively. We consider the generative process proposed by Globerson et al. (2015) and apply it to general connected graphs. We analyze the structural conditions of the graph that allow for the exact recovery of the labels.

Coronavirus reaches New Jersey as state confirms its first presumptive positive case of novel virus

FOX News

These symptoms Coronavirus vs. flu, the symptoms you need to know. New Jersey has joined a growing list of states with confirmed cases of the novel coronavirus. On Wednesday, officials in the state confirmed the first presumptive positive case of COVID-19 in a 32-year-old male. The patient, who was not identified, has been hospitalized in Bergen County since March 3, according to a news release from the State of New Jersey Department of Health. The positive case "came from a sample tested by the New Jersey Department of Health at the New Jersey Public Health Environmental Laboratories (PHEL) and is now being submitted to the CDC for confirmatory testing," said officials, who are now tracking the man's close contacts to identify anyone who may have been exposed.

Uncertainty in Structured Prediction Artificial Intelligence

Uncertainty estimation is important for ensuring safety and robustness of AI systems, especially for high-risk applications. While much progress has recently been made in this area, most research has focused on un-structured prediction, such as image classification and regression tasks. However, while task-specific forms of confidence score estimation have been investigated by the speech and machine translation communities, limited work has investigated general uncertainty estimation approaches for structured prediction. Thus, this work aims to investigate uncertainty estimation for structured prediction tasks within a single unified and interpretable probabilistic ensemble-based framework. We consider uncertainty estimation for sequence data at the token-level and complete sequence-level, provide interpretations for, and applications of, various measures of uncertainty and discuss the challenges associated with obtaining them. This work also explores the practical challenges associated with obtaining uncertainty estimates for structured predictions tasks and provides baselines for token-level error detection, sequence-level prediction rejection, and sequence-level out-of-domain input detection using ensembles of auto-regressive transformer models trained on the WMT'14 English-French and WMT'17 English-German translation and LibriSpeech speech recognition datasets.

Universal consistency of the $k$-NN rule in metric spaces and Nagata dimension Machine Learning

The $k$ nearest neighbour learning rule (under the uniform distance tie breaking) is universally consistent in every metric space $X$ that is sigma-finite dimensional in the sense of Nagata. This was pointed out by C\'erou and Guyader (2006) as a consequence of the main result by those authors, combined with a theorem in real analysis sketched by D. Preiss (1971) (and elaborated in detail by Assouad and Quentin de Gromard (2006)). We show that it is possible to give a direct proof along the same lines as the original theorem of Charles J. Stone (1977) about the universal consistency of the $k$-NN classifier in the finite dimensional Euclidean space. The generalization is non-trivial because of the distance ties being more prevalent in the non-euclidean setting, and on the way we investigate the relevant geometric properties of the metrics and the limitations of the Stone argument, by constructing various examples.