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Supervised Learning: Overviews


Measuring and Reducing Model Update Regression in Structured Prediction for NLP

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

Recent advance in deep learning has led to rapid adoption of machine learning based NLP models in a wide range of applications. Despite the continuous gain in accuracy, backward compatibility is also an important aspect for industrial applications, yet it received little research attention. Backward compatibility requires that the new model does not regress on cases that were correctly handled by its predecessor. This work studies model update regression in structured prediction tasks. We choose syntactic dependency parsing and conversational semantic parsing as representative examples of structured prediction tasks in NLP. First, we measure and analyze model update regression in different model update settings. Next, we explore and benchmark existing techniques for reducing model update regression including model ensemble and knowledge distillation. We further propose a simple and effective method, Backward-Congruent Re-ranking (BCR), by taking into account the characteristics of structured output. Experiments show that BCR can better mitigate model update regression than model ensemble and knowledge distillation approaches.


A Survey of Methods for Automated Algorithm Configuration

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

Algorithm configuration (AC) is concerned with the automated search of the most suitable parameter configuration of a parametrized algorithm. There is currently a wide variety of AC problem variants and methods proposed in the literature. Existing reviews do not take into account all derivatives of the AC problem, nor do they offer a complete classification scheme. To this end, we introduce taxonomies to describe the AC problem and features of configuration methods, respectively. We review existing AC literature within the lens of our taxonomies, outline relevant design choices of configuration approaches, contrast methods and problem variants against each other, and describe the state of AC in industry. Finally, our review provides researchers and practitioners with a look at future research directions in the field of AC.


Network representation learning: A macro and micro view

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

Graph is a universe data structure that is widely used to organize data in real-world. Various real-word networks like the transportation network, social and academic network can be represented by graphs. Recent years have witnessed the quick development on representing vertices in the network into a low-dimensional vector space, referred to as network representation learning. Representation learning can facilitate the design of new algorithms on the graph data. In this survey, we conduct a comprehensive review of current literature on network representation learning. Existing algorithms can be categorized into three groups: shallow embedding models, heterogeneous network embedding models, graph neural network based models. We review state-of-the-art algorithms for each category and discuss the essential differences between these algorithms. One advantage of the survey is that we systematically study the underlying theoretical foundations underlying the different categories of algorithms, which offers deep insights for better understanding the development of the network representation learning field.


Towards Explainable Fact Checking

arXiv.org Machine Learning

The past decade has seen a substantial rise in the amount of mis- and disinformation online, from targeted disinformation campaigns to influence politics, to the unintentional spreading of misinformation about public health. This development has spurred research in the area of automatic fact checking, from approaches to detect check-worthy claims and determining the stance of tweets towards claims, to methods to determine the veracity of claims given evidence documents. These automatic methods are often content-based, using natural language processing methods, which in turn utilise deep neural networks to learn higher-order features from text in order to make predictions. As deep neural networks are black-box models, their inner workings cannot be easily explained. At the same time, it is desirable to explain how they arrive at certain decisions, especially if they are to be used for decision making. While this has been known for some time, the issues this raises have been exacerbated by models increasing in size, and by EU legislation requiring models to be used for decision making to provide explanations, and, very recently, by legislation requiring online platforms operating in the EU to provide transparent reporting on their services. Despite this, current solutions for explainability are still lacking in the area of fact checking. This thesis presents my research on automatic fact checking, including claim check-worthiness detection, stance detection and veracity prediction. Its contributions go beyond fact checking, with the thesis proposing more general machine learning solutions for natural language processing in the area of learning with limited labelled data. Finally, the thesis presents some first solutions for explainable fact checking.


Statistical embedding: Beyond principal components

arXiv.org Machine Learning

There has been an intense recent activity in embedding of very high dimensional and nonlinear data structures, much of it in the data science and machine learning literature. We survey this activity in four parts. In the first part we cover nonlinear methods such as principal curves, multidimensional scaling, local linear methods, ISOMAP, graph based methods and kernel based methods. The second part is concerned with topological embedding methods, in particular mapping topological properties into persistence diagrams. Another type of data sets with a tremendous growth is very high-dimensional network data. The task considered in part three is how to embed such data in a vector space of moderate dimension to make the data amenable to traditional techniques such as cluster and classification techniques. The final part of the survey deals with embedding in $\mathbb{R}^2$, which is visualization. Three methods are presented: $t$-SNE, UMAP and LargeVis based on methods in parts one, two and three, respectively. The methods are illustrated and compared on two simulated data sets; one consisting of a triple of noisy Ranunculoid curves, and one consisting of networks of increasing complexity and with two types of nodes.


A Literature Review of Recent Graph Embedding Techniques for Biomedical Data

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

With the rapid development of biomedical software and hardware, a large amount of relational data interlinking genes, proteins, chemical components, drugs, diseases, and symptoms has been collected for modern biomedical research. Many graph-based learning methods have been proposed to analyze such type of data, giving a deeper insight into the topology and knowledge behind the biomedical data, which greatly benefit to both academic research and industrial application for human healthcare. However, the main difficulty is how to handle high dimensionality and sparsity of the biomedical graphs. Recently, graph embedding methods provide an effective and efficient way to address the above issues. It converts graph-based data into a low dimensional vector space where the graph structural properties and knowledge information are well preserved. In this survey, we conduct a literature review of recent developments and trends in applying graph embedding methods for biomedical data. We also introduce important applications and tasks in the biomedical domain as well as associated public biomedical datasets.


A PAC-Bayesian Perspective on Structured Prediction with Implicit Loss Embeddings

arXiv.org Machine Learning

Many practical machine learning tasks can be framed as Structured prediction problems, where several output variables are predicted and considered interdependent. Recent theoretical advances in structured prediction have focused on obtaining fast rates convergence guarantees, especially in the Implicit Loss Embedding (ILE) framework. PAC-Bayes has gained interest recently for its capacity of producing tight risk bounds for predictor distributions. This work proposes a novel PAC-Bayes perspective on the ILE Structured prediction framework. We present two generalization bounds, on the risk and excess risk, which yield insights into the behavior of ILE predictors. Two learning algorithms are derived from these bounds.


A contribution to Optimal Transport on incomparable spaces

arXiv.org Machine Learning

Optimal Transport is a theory that allows to define geometrical notions of distance between probability distributions and to find correspondences, relationships, between sets of points. Many machine learning applications are derived from this theory, at the frontier between mathematics and optimization. This thesis proposes to study the complex scenario in which the different data belong to incomparable spaces. In particular we address the following questions: how to define and apply Optimal Transport between graphs, between structured data? How can it be adapted when the data are varied and not embedded in the same metric space? This thesis proposes a set of Optimal Transport tools for these different cases. An important part is notably devoted to the study of the Gromov-Wasserstein distance whose properties allow to define interesting transport problems on incomparable spaces. More broadly, we analyze the mathematical properties of the various proposed tools, we establish algorithmic solutions to compute them and we study their applicability in numerous machine learning scenarii which cover, in particular, classification, simplification, partitioning of structured data, as well as heterogeneous domain adaptation.


Automated Concatenation of Embeddings for Structured Prediction

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

Pretrained contextualized embeddings are powerful word representations for structured prediction tasks. Recent work found that better word representations can be obtained by concatenating different types of embeddings. However, the selection of embeddings to form the best concatenated representation usually varies depending on the task and the collection of candidate embeddings, and the ever-increasing number of embedding types makes it a more difficult problem. In this paper, we propose Automated Concatenation of Embeddings (ACE) to automate the process of finding better concatenations of embeddings for structured prediction tasks, based on a formulation inspired by recent progress on neural architecture search. Specifically, a controller alternately samples a concatenation of embeddings, according to its current belief of the effectiveness of individual embedding types in consideration for a task, and updates the belief based on a reward. We follow strategies in reinforcement learning to optimize the parameters of the controller and compute the reward based on the accuracy of a task model, which is fed with the sampled concatenation as input and trained on a task dataset. Empirical results on 6 tasks and 23 datasets show that our approach outperforms strong baselines and achieves state-of-the-art performance with fine-tuned embeddings in the vast majority of evaluations.


Propositionalization and Embeddings: Two Sides of the Same Coin

arXiv.org Machine Learning

Data preprocessing is an important component of machine learning pipelines, which requires ample time and resources. An integral part of preprocessing is data transformation into the format required by a given learning algorithm. This paper outlines some of the modern data processing techniques used in relational learning that enable data fusion from different input data types and formats into a single table data representation, focusing on the propositionalization and embedding data transformation approaches. While both approaches aim at transforming data into tabular data format, they use different terminology and task definitions, are perceived to address different goals, and are used in different contexts. This paper contributes a unifying framework that allows for improved understanding of these two data transformation techniques by presenting their unified definitions, and by explaining the similarities and differences between the two approaches as variants of a unified complex data transformation task. In addition to the unifying framework, the novelty of this paper is a unifying methodology combining propositionalization and embeddings, which benefits from the advantages of both in solving complex data transformation and learning tasks. We present two efficient implementations of the unifying methodology: an instance-based PropDRM approach, and a feature-based PropStar approach to data transformation and learning, together with their empirical evaluation on several relational problems. The results show that the new algorithms can outperform existing relational learners and can solve much larger problems.