Pattern Recognition


Google's AI drops 'man' and 'woman' gender labels to avoid possible bias

#artificialintelligence

Google has announced that its image recognition AI will no longer identify people in images as a man or a woman, reports Business Insider. The change was revealed in an email to developers who use the company's Cloud Vision API that makes it easy for apps and services to identify objects in images. In the email, Google said it wasn't possible to detect a person's true gender based simply on the clothes they were wearing. But Google also said that they were dropping gender labels for another reason: they could create or reinforce biases. Given that a person's gender cannot be inferred by appearance, we have decided to remove these labels in order to align with the Artificial Intelligence Principles at Google, specifically Principle #2: Avoid creating or reinforcing unfair bias.


Filtering Abstract Senses From Image Search Results

Neural Information Processing Systems

We propose an unsupervised method that, given a word, automatically selects non-abstract senses of that word from an online ontology and generates images depicting the corresponding entities. When faced with the task of learning a visual model based only on the name of an object, a common approach is to find images on the web that are associated with the object name, and then train a visual classifier from the search result. As words are generally polysemous, this approach can lead to relatively noisy models if many examples due to outlier senses are added to the model. We argue that images associated with an abstract word sense should be excluded when training a visual classifier to learn a model of a physical object. While image clustering can group together visually coherent sets of returned images, it can be difficult to distinguish whether an image cluster relates to a desired object or to an abstract sense of the word.


Why The Brain Separates Face Recognition From Object Recognition

Neural Information Processing Systems

Many studies have uncovered evidence that visual cortex contains specialized regions involved in processing faces but not other object classes. Recent electrophysiology studies of cells in several of these specialized regions revealed that at least some of these regions are organized in a hierarchical manner with viewpoint-specific cells projecting to downstream viewpoint-invariant identity-specific cells (Freiwald and Tsao 2010). A separate computational line of reasoning leads to the claim that some transformations of visual inputs that preserve viewed object identity are class-specific. In particular, the 2D images evoked by a face undergoing a 3D rotation are not produced by the same image transformation (2D) that would produce the images evoked by an object of another class undergoing the same 3D rotation. However, within the class of faces, knowledge of the image transformation evoked by 3D rotation can be reliably transferred from previously viewed faces to help identify a novel face at a new viewpoint.


A Convergence Analysis of Log-Linear Training

Neural Information Processing Systems

Log-linear models are widely used probability models for statistical pattern recognition. Typically, log-linear models are trained according to a convex criterion. In recent years, the interest in log-linear models has greatly increased. The optimization of log-linear model parameters is costly and therefore an important topic, in particular for large-scale applications. Different optimization algorithms have been evaluated empirically in many papers.


Great ape brains have a feature that we thought was unique to humans

New Scientist

Our brains could have more in common with our ape cousins than previously thought, which might require us to rethink ideas on the evolution of brain specialism in our early human ancestors. The left and right sides of our brains aren't symmetrical; some areas on one side are larger or smaller, while other parts protrude more. The pattern of these anatomical differences, or asymmetries, was thought to be uniquely human, originating when our brain hemispheres became specialised for certain tasks, such as processing language with the left side. Now, it seems the pattern came first – before humans evolved. Brain pattern comparisons between humans, chimpanzees, gorillas and orangutans reveal that our brains' left-right differences aren't unique, but shared with great apes.


A Simple Cache Model for Image Recognition

Neural Information Processing Systems

Training large-scale image recognition models is computationally expensive. This raises the question of whether there might be simple ways to improve the test performance of an already trained model without having to re-train or fine-tune it with new data. Here, we show that, surprisingly, this is indeed possible. The key observation we make is that the layers of a deep network close to the output layer contain independent, easily extractable class-relevant information that is not contained in the output layer itself. We propose to extract this extra class-relevant information using a simple key-value cache memory to improve the classification performance of the model at test time.


Bilevel Distance Metric Learning for Robust Image Recognition

Neural Information Processing Systems

Metric learning, aiming to learn a discriminative Mahalanobis distance matrix M that can effectively reflect the similarity between data samples, has been widely studied in various image recognition problems. Most of the existing metric learning methods input the features extracted directly from the original data in the preprocess phase. What's worse, these features usually take no consideration of the local geometrical structure of the data and the noise existed in the data, thus they may not be optimal for the subsequent metric learning task. In this paper, we integrate both feature extraction and metric learning into one joint optimization framework and propose a new bilevel distance metric learning model. Specifically, the lower level characterizes the intrinsic data structure using graph regularized sparse coefficients, while the upper level forces the data samples from the same class to be close to each other and pushes those from different classes far away.


Generative Shape Models: Joint Text Recognition and Segmentation with Very Little Training Data

Neural Information Processing Systems

We demonstrate that a generative model for object shapes can achieve state of the art results on challenging scene text recognition tasks, and with orders of magnitude fewer training images than required for competing discriminative methods. In addition to transcribing text from challenging images, our method performs fine-grained instance segmentation of characters. We show that our model is more robust to both affine transformations and non-affine deformations compared to previous approaches. Papers published at the Neural Information Processing Systems Conference.


How to detect defects on images

#artificialintelligence

Building visual inspection system is the common problem in lot of factories and Machine Learning approach is scalable solution. That is why this blog post will be focused recognising defects on the images with Ximilar platform. We are going to show how easy is to build image quality control model. We will play with Severstal dataset[2] published on Kaggle. This dataset contains flat sheet steel images.


Why Did Humans Evolve Pattern Recognition Abilities? Cognition Today

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These mechanisms emerge as a response to patterns in the environment or enable us to refine our ability to spot them. Pattern recognition skills sit at the helm of our basic cognitive architecture. A common problem during hunting is to estimate how many predators there are – based on cues like animal sounds, footprints, etc. Say a pack of 4 hunters is trying to isolate a prey for food. The hunters can only survive if they have the physical capability to defend themselves and successfully kill or escape. If they do not have the ability, they will die.