"... the research area that studies the operation and design of systems that recognize patterns in data." It includes statistical methods like discriminant analysis, feature extraction, error estimation, cluster analysis.
– Pattern Recognition Laboratory at Delft University of Technology
This paper presents a comprehensive review of methods covering significant subjective and objective human stress detection techniques available in the literature. The methods for measuring human stress responses could include subjective questionnaires (developed by psychologists) and objective markers observed using data from wearable and non-wearable sensors. In particular, wearable sensor-based methods commonly use data from electroencephalography, electrocardiogram, galvanic skin response, electromyography, electrodermal activity, heart rate, heart rate variability, and photoplethysmography both individually and in multimodal fusion strategies. Whereas, methods based on non-wearable sensors include strategies such as analyzing pupil dilation and speech, smartphone data, eye movement, body posture, and thermal imaging. Whenever a stressful situation is encountered by an individual, physiological, physical, or behavioral changes are induced which help in coping with the challenge at hand. A wide range of studies has attempted to establish a relationship between these stressful situations and the response of human beings by using different kinds of psychological, physiological, physical, and behavioral measures. Inspired by the lack of availability of a definitive verdict about the relationship of human stress with these different kinds of markers, a detailed survey about human stress detection methods is conducted in this paper. In particular, we explore how stress detection methods can benefit from artificial intelligence utilizing relevant data from various sources. This review will prove to be a reference document that would provide guidelines for future research enabling effective detection of human stress conditions.
This is Part II of the two-part comprehensive survey devoted to a computing framework most commonly known under the names Hyperdimensional Computing and Vector Symbolic Architectures (HDC/VSA). Both names refer to a family of computational models that use high-dimensional distributed representations and rely on the algebraic properties of their key operations to incorporate the advantages of structured symbolic representations and vector distributed representations. Holographic Reduced Representations is an influential HDC/VSA model that is well-known in the machine learning domain and often used to refer to the whole family. However, for the sake of consistency, we use HDC/VSA to refer to the area. Part I of this survey covered foundational aspects of the area, such as historical context leading to the development of HDC/VSA, key elements of any HDC/VSA model, known HDC/VSA models, and transforming input data of various types into high-dimensional vectors suitable for HDC/VSA. This second part surveys existing applications, the role of HDC/VSA in cognitive computing and architectures, as well as directions for future work. Most of the applications lie within the machine learning/artificial intelligence domain, however we also cover other applications to provide a thorough picture. The survey is written to be useful for both newcomers and practitioners.
Artificial intelligence (AI) has become a part of everyday conversation and our lives. It is considered as the new electricity that is revolutionizing the world. AI is heavily invested in both industry and academy. However, there is also a lot of hype in the current AI debate. AI based on so-called deep learning has achieved impressive results in many problems, but its limits are already visible. AI has been under research since the 1940s, and the industry has seen many ups and downs due to over-expectations and related disappointments that have followed. The purpose of this book is to give a realistic picture of AI, its history, its potential and limitations. We believe that AI is a helper, not a ruler of humans. We begin by describing what AI is and how it has evolved over the decades. After fundamentals, we explain the importance of massive data for the current mainstream of artificial intelligence. The most common representations for AI, methods, and machine learning are covered. In addition, the main application areas are introduced. Computer vision has been central to the development of AI. The book provides a general introduction to computer vision, and includes an exposure to the results and applications of our own research. Emotions are central to human intelligence, but little use has been made in AI. We present the basics of emotional intelligence and our own research on the topic. We discuss super-intelligence that transcends human understanding, explaining why such achievement seems impossible on the basis of present knowledge,and how AI could be improved. Finally, a summary is made of the current state of AI and what to do in the future. In the appendix, we look at the development of AI education, especially from the perspective of contents at our own university.
As the concept and implementation of cutting-edge technologies like artificial intelligence and machine learning has become relevant, academics, researchers and information professionals involve research in this area. The objective of this systematic literature review is to provide a synthesis of empirical studies exploring application of artificial intelligence and machine learning in libraries. To achieve the objectives of the study, a systematic literature review was conducted based on the original guidelines proposed by Kitchenham et al. (2009). Data was collected from Web of Science, Scopus, LISA and LISTA databases. Following the rigorous/ established selection process, a total of thirty-two articles were finally selected, reviewed and analyzed to summarize on the application of AI and ML domain and techniques which are most often used in libraries. Findings show that the current state of the AI and ML research that is relevant with the LIS domain mainly focuses on theoretical works. However, some researchers also emphasized on implementation projects or case studies. This study will provide a panoramic view of AI and ML in libraries for researchers, practitioners and educators for furthering the more technology-oriented approaches, and anticipating future innovation pathways.
Graph kernels have attracted a lot of attention during the last decade, and have evolved into a rapidly developing branch of learning on structured data. During the past 20 years, the considerable research activity that occurred in the field resulted in the development of dozens of graph kernels, each focusing on specific structural properties of graphs. Graph kernels have proven successful in a wide range of domains, ranging from social networks to bioinformatics. The goal of this survey is to provide a unifying view of the literature on graph kernels. In particular, we present a comprehensive overview of a wide range of graph kernels. Furthermore, we perform an experimental evaluation of several of those kernels on publicly available datasets, and provide a comparative study. Finally, we discuss key applications of graph kernels, and outline some challenges that remain to be addressed.
This two-part comprehensive survey is devoted to a computing framework most commonly known under the names Hyperdimensional Computing and Vector Symbolic Architectures (HDC/VSA). Both names refer to a family of computational models that use high-dimensional distributed representations and rely on the algebraic properties of their key operations to incorporate the advantages of structured symbolic representations and vector distributed representations. Notable models in the HDC/VSA family are Tensor Product Representations, Holographic Reduced Representations, Multiply-Add-Permute, Binary Spatter Codes, and Sparse Binary Distributed Representations but there are other models too. HDC/VSA is a highly interdisciplinary area with connections to computer science, electrical engineering, artificial intelligence, mathematics, and cognitive science. This fact makes it challenging to create a thorough overview of the area. However, due to a surge of new researchers joining the area in recent years, the necessity for a comprehensive survey of the area has become extremely important. Therefore, amongst other aspects of the area, this Part I surveys important aspects such as: known computational models of HDC/VSA and transformations of various input data types to high-dimensional distributed representations. Part II of this survey is devoted to applications, cognitive computing and architectures, as well as directions for future work. The survey is written to be useful for both newcomers and practitioners.
Multimodal classification research has been gaining popularity in many domains that collect more data from multiple sources including satellite imagery, biometrics, and medicine. However, the lack of consistent terminology and architectural descriptions makes it difficult to compare different existing solutions. We address these challenges by proposing a new taxonomy for describing such systems based on trends found in recent publications on multimodal classification. Many of the most difficult aspects of unimodal classification have not yet been fully addressed for multimodal datasets including big data, class imbalance, and instance level difficulty. We also provide a discussion of these challenges and future directions.
Using finite-state machines to learn patterns, Tsetlin machines (TMs) have obtained competitive accuracy and learning speed across several benchmarks, with frugal memory- and energy footprint. A TM represents patterns as conjunctive clauses in propositional logic (AND-rules), each clause voting for or against a particular output. While efficient for single-output problems, one needs a separate TM per output for multi-output problems. Employing multiple TMs hinders pattern reuse because each TM then operates in a silo. In this paper, we introduce clause sharing, merging multiple TMs into a single one. Each clause is related to each output by using a weight. A positive weight makes the clause vote for output $1$, while a negative weight makes the clause vote for output $0$. The clauses thus coalesce to produce multiple outputs. The resulting coalesced Tsetlin Machine (CoTM) simultaneously learns both the weights and the composition of each clause by employing interacting Stochastic Searching on the Line (SSL) and Tsetlin Automata (TA) teams. Our empirical results on MNIST, Fashion-MNIST, and Kuzushiji-MNIST show that CoTM obtains significantly higher accuracy than TM on $50$- to $1$K-clause configurations, indicating an ability to repurpose clauses. E.g., accuracy goes from $71.99$% to $89.66$% on Fashion-MNIST when employing $50$ clauses per class (22 Kb memory). While TM and CoTM accuracy is similar when using more than $1$K clauses per class, CoTM reaches peak accuracy $3\times$ faster on MNIST with $8$K clauses. We further investigate robustness towards imbalanced training data. Our evaluations on imbalanced versions of IMDb- and CIFAR10 data show that CoTM is robust towards high degrees of class imbalance. Being able to share clauses, we believe CoTM will enable new TM application domains that involve multiple outputs, such as learning language models and auto-encoding.
Pattern discovery, the process of discovering previously unrecognized patterns, is often performed as an ad-hoc process with little resulting certainty in the quality of the proposed patterns. Pattern validation, the process of validating the accuracy of proposed patterns, remains dominated by the simple heuristic of "the rule of three". This article shows how to use established scientific research methods for the purpose of pattern discovery and validation. We present a specific approach, called the handbook method, that uses the qualitative survey, action research, and case study research for pattern discovery and evaluation, and we discuss the underlying principle of using scientific methods in general. We evaluate the handbook method using three exploratory studies and demonstrate its usefulness.
We present PSEUDo, an adaptive feature learning technique for exploring visual patterns in multi-track sequential data. Our approach is designed with the primary focus to overcome the uneconomic retraining requirements and inflexible representation learning in current deep learning-based systems. Multi-track time series data are generated on an unprecedented scale due to increased sensors and data storage. These datasets hold valuable patterns, like in neuromarketing, where researchers try to link patterns in multivariate sequential data from physiological sensors to the purchase behavior of products and services. But a lack of ground truth and high variance make automatic pattern detection unreliable. Our advancements are based on a novel query-aware locality-sensitive hashing technique to create a feature-based representation of multivariate time series windows. Most importantly, our algorithm features sub-linear training and inference time. We can even accomplish both the modeling and comparison of 10,000 different 64-track time series, each with 100 time steps (a typical EEG dataset) under 0.8 seconds. This performance gain allows for a rapid relevance feedback-driven adaption of the underlying pattern similarity model and enables the user to modify the speed-vs-accuracy trade-off gradually. We demonstrate superiority of PSEUDo in terms of efficiency, accuracy, and steerability through a quantitative performance comparison and a qualitative visual quality comparison to the state-of-the-art algorithms in the field. Moreover, we showcase the usability of PSEUDo through a case study demonstrating our visual pattern retrieval concepts in a large meteorological dataset. We find that our adaptive models can accurately capture the user's notion of similarity and allow for an understandable exploratory visual pattern retrieval in large multivariate time series datasets.