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Pattern Recognition: Instructional Materials


Learning Robust Convolutional Neural Networks with Relevant Feature Focusing via Explanations

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

Existing image recognition techniques based on convolutional neural networks (CNNs) basically assume that the training and test datasets are sampled from i.i.d distributions. However, this assumption is easily broken in the real world because of the distribution shift that occurs when the co-occurrence relations between objects and backgrounds in input images change. Under this type of distribution shift, CNNs learn to focus on features that are not task-relevant, such as backgrounds from the training data, and degrade their accuracy on the test data. To tackle this problem, we propose relevant feature focusing (ReFF). ReFF detects task-relevant features and regularizes CNNs via explanation outputs (e.g., Grad-CAM). Since ReFF is composed of post-hoc explanation modules, it can be easily applied to off-the-shelf CNNs. Furthermore, ReFF requires no additional inference cost at test time because it is only used for regularization while training. We demonstrate that CNNs trained with ReFF focus on features relevant to the target task and that ReFF improves the test-time accuracy.


Mental Stress Detection using Data from Wearable and Non-wearable Sensors: A Review

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

This paper presents a comprehensive review of methods covering significant subjective and objective human stress detection techniques available in the literature. The methods for measuring human stress responses could include subjective questionnaires (developed by psychologists) and objective markers observed using data from wearable and non-wearable sensors. In particular, wearable sensor-based methods commonly use data from electroencephalography, electrocardiogram, galvanic skin response, electromyography, electrodermal activity, heart rate, heart rate variability, and photoplethysmography both individually and in multimodal fusion strategies. Whereas, methods based on non-wearable sensors include strategies such as analyzing pupil dilation and speech, smartphone data, eye movement, body posture, and thermal imaging. Whenever a stressful situation is encountered by an individual, physiological, physical, or behavioral changes are induced which help in coping with the challenge at hand. A wide range of studies has attempted to establish a relationship between these stressful situations and the response of human beings by using different kinds of psychological, physiological, physical, and behavioral measures. Inspired by the lack of availability of a definitive verdict about the relationship of human stress with these different kinds of markers, a detailed survey about human stress detection methods is conducted in this paper. In particular, we explore how stress detection methods can benefit from artificial intelligence utilizing relevant data from various sources. This review will prove to be a reference document that would provide guidelines for future research enabling effective detection of human stress conditions.


Multi-Graph Fusion Networks for Urban Region Embedding

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

Learning the embeddings for urban regions from human mobility data can reveal the functionality of regions, and then enables the correlated but distinct tasks such as crime prediction. Human mobility data contains rich but abundant information, which yields to the comprehensive region embeddings for cross domain tasks. In this paper, we propose multi-graph fusion networks (MGFN) to enable the cross domain prediction tasks. First, we integrate the graphs with spatio-temporal similarity as mobility patterns through a mobility graph fusion module. Then, in the mobility pattern joint learning module, we design the multi-level cross-attention mechanism to learn the comprehensive embeddings from multiple mobility patterns based on intra-pattern and inter-pattern messages. Finally, we conduct extensive experiments on real-world urban datasets. Experimental results demonstrate that the proposed MGFN outperforms the state-of-the-art methods by up to 12.35% improvement.


A Survey on Hyperdimensional Computing aka Vector Symbolic Architectures, Part II: Applications, Cognitive Models, and Challenges

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

This is Part II of the two-part comprehensive survey devoted to a computing framework most commonly known under the names Hyperdimensional Computing and Vector Symbolic Architectures (HDC/VSA). Both names refer to a family of computational models that use high-dimensional distributed representations and rely on the algebraic properties of their key operations to incorporate the advantages of structured symbolic representations and vector distributed representations. Holographic Reduced Representations is an influential HDC/VSA model that is well-known in the machine learning domain and often used to refer to the whole family. However, for the sake of consistency, we use HDC/VSA to refer to the area. Part I of this survey covered foundational aspects of the area, such as historical context leading to the development of HDC/VSA, key elements of any HDC/VSA model, known HDC/VSA models, and transforming input data of various types into high-dimensional vectors suitable for HDC/VSA. This second part surveys existing applications, the role of HDC/VSA in cognitive computing and architectures, as well as directions for future work. Most of the applications lie within the machine learning/artificial intelligence domain, however we also cover other applications to provide a thorough picture. The survey is written to be useful for both newcomers and practitioners.


Challenges of Artificial Intelligence -- From Machine Learning and Computer Vision to Emotional Intelligence

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

Artificial intelligence (AI) has become a part of everyday conversation and our lives. It is considered as the new electricity that is revolutionizing the world. AI is heavily invested in both industry and academy. However, there is also a lot of hype in the current AI debate. AI based on so-called deep learning has achieved impressive results in many problems, but its limits are already visible. AI has been under research since the 1940s, and the industry has seen many ups and downs due to over-expectations and related disappointments that have followed. The purpose of this book is to give a realistic picture of AI, its history, its potential and limitations. We believe that AI is a helper, not a ruler of humans. We begin by describing what AI is and how it has evolved over the decades. After fundamentals, we explain the importance of massive data for the current mainstream of artificial intelligence. The most common representations for AI, methods, and machine learning are covered. In addition, the main application areas are introduced. Computer vision has been central to the development of AI. The book provides a general introduction to computer vision, and includes an exposure to the results and applications of our own research. Emotions are central to human intelligence, but little use has been made in AI. We present the basics of emotional intelligence and our own research on the topic. We discuss super-intelligence that transcends human understanding, explaining why such achievement seems impossible on the basis of present knowledge,and how AI could be improved. Finally, a summary is made of the current state of AI and what to do in the future. In the appendix, we look at the development of AI education, especially from the perspective of contents at our own university.


Computer Vision: Python OCR & Object Detection Quick Starter

#artificialintelligence

This is the third course from my Computer Vision series. Image Recognition, Object Detection, Object Recognition and also Optical Character Recognition are among the most used applications of Computer Vision. Using these techniques, the computer will be able to recognize and classify either the whole image, or multiple objects inside a single image predicting the class of the objects with the percentage accuracy score. Using OCR, it can also recognize and convert text in the images to machine readable format like text or a document. Object Detection and Object Recognition is widely used in many simple applications and also complex ones like self driving cars.


Computer Vision: Python OCR & Object Detection Quick Starter

#artificialintelligence

This is the third course from my Computer Vision series. Image Recognition, Object Detection, Object Recognition and also Optical Character Recognition are among the most used applications of Computer Vision. Using these techniques, the computer will be able to recognize and classify either the whole image, or multiple objects inside a single image predicting the class of the objects with the percentage accuracy score. Using OCR, it can also recognize and convert text in the images to machine readable format like text or a document. Object Detection and Object Recognition is widely used in many simple applications and also complex ones like self driving cars.


A Survey on Hyperdimensional Computing aka Vector Symbolic Architectures, Part I: Models and Data Transformations

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

This two-part comprehensive survey is devoted to a computing framework most commonly known under the names Hyperdimensional Computing and Vector Symbolic Architectures (HDC/VSA). Both names refer to a family of computational models that use high-dimensional distributed representations and rely on the algebraic properties of their key operations to incorporate the advantages of structured symbolic representations and vector distributed representations. Notable models in the HDC/VSA family are Tensor Product Representations, Holographic Reduced Representations, Multiply-Add-Permute, Binary Spatter Codes, and Sparse Binary Distributed Representations but there are other models too. HDC/VSA is a highly interdisciplinary area with connections to computer science, electrical engineering, artificial intelligence, mathematics, and cognitive science. This fact makes it challenging to create a thorough overview of the area. However, due to a surge of new researchers joining the area in recent years, the necessity for a comprehensive survey of the area has become extremely important. Therefore, amongst other aspects of the area, this Part I surveys important aspects such as: known computational models of HDC/VSA and transformations of various input data types to high-dimensional distributed representations. Part II of this survey is devoted to applications, cognitive computing and architectures, as well as directions for future work. The survey is written to be useful for both newcomers and practitioners.


12 Best Free Online Courses for Data Science for Beginners in 2021

#artificialintelligence

This is one of the Best Online Courses for Machine Learning. This course is created by Andrew Ng the Co-founder of Coursera, and an Adjunct Professor of Computer Science at Stanford University. This Course provides you a broad introduction to machine learning, data-mining, and statistical pattern recognition. All the math required for Machine Learning is well discussed in this course. This course uses the open-source programming language Octave. Octave gives an easy way to understand the fundamentals of Machine Learning.


Amazing AI: Reverse Image Search

#artificialintelligence

Artificial intelligence is one of the fastest growing fields of computer science today and the demand for excellent AI Engineers is increasing day in and day out. This course will help you stay competitive in the AI job market by teaching you how to create a Deep Learning End-to-End product on your own. Most courses focus on the basics of Deep Learning and teach you about the very basics of different models. In this course, however, you will learn how to write a whole End-to-End pipeline, from data preprocessing across choosing the right hyper-parameters, to showing your users results in a browser. The case that we will tackle in this course is an engine for Image to Image Search.