Philosophy


Why Philip Pullman Is Obsessed with Panpsychism - Facts So Romantic

Nautilus

Philip Pullman is once again having a moment, thanks to the new blockbuster adaptation of His Dark Materials by the BBC and HBO. His fantasy classic--filled with witches, talking bears and "daemons" (people's alter-egos that take animal form)--is rendered in glorious steampunk detail. Pullman has also returned to the fictional world of his heroine, Lyra Belacqua, with a new trilogy, The Book of Dust, which probes more deeply into the central question of his earlier books: What is the nature of consciousness? Pullman loves to write about big ideas, and recent scientific discoveries about dark matter and the Higgs boson have inspired certain plot elements in his novels. The biggest mystery in these books--an enigmatic substance called Dust--comes right out of current debates among scientists and philosophers about the origins of consciousness and the provocative theory of panpsychism.


John Searle's Syntax-vs.-Semantics Argument Against Artificial Intelligence (AI)

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This is a simple introduction to the philosopher John Searle's main argument against artificial intelligence (AI). This means that it doesn't come down either for or against that argument. The main body of the Searle's argument is how he distinguishes syntax from syntax. Thus the well-known Chinese Room scenario is simply Searle's means of expressing what he sees as the vital distinction to be made between syntax and semantics when it comes to debates about computers and AI generally. One way in which John Searle puts his case is by reference to reference. That position is summed up simply when Searle (in his'Minds, Brains, and Programs' of 1980) writes: "Whereas the English subsystem knows that'hamburgers' refers to hamburgers, the Chinese subsystem knows only that'squiggle squiggle' is followed by'squoggle squoggle'." So whereas what Searle calls the "English subsystem" involves a complex reference-relation which involved entities in the world, mental states, knowledge of meanings, intentionality, consciousness, memory and other such things; the Chinese subsystem is only following rules.


Is Matter Conscious? - Issue 82: Panpsychism

Nautilus

The nature of consciousness seems to be unique among scientific puzzles. Not only do neuroscientists have no fundamental explanation for how it arises from physical states of the brain, we are not even sure whether we ever will. Astronomers wonder what dark matter is, geologists seek the origins of life, and biologists try to understand cancer--all difficult problems, of course, yet at least we have some idea of how to go about investigating them and rough conceptions of what their solutions could look like. Our first-person experience, on the other hand, lies beyond the traditional methods of science. Following the philosopher David Chalmers, we call it the hard problem of consciousness. But perhaps consciousness is not uniquely troublesome. Going back to Gottfried Leibniz and Immanuel Kant, philosophers of science have struggled with a lesser known, but equally hard, problem of matter. What is physical matter in and of itself, behind the mathematical structure described by physics?


Thinking Machines Will Change Future Warfare

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The greater use of artificial intelligence (AI) and autonomous systems by the militaries of the world has the potential to affect deterrence strategies and escalation dynamics in crises and conflicts. Up until now, deterrence has involved humans trying to dissuade other humans from taking particular courses of action. What happens when the thinking and decision processes involved are no longer purely human? How might dynamics change when decisions and actions can be taken at machine speeds? How might AI and autonomy affect the ways that countries have developed to signal one another about the potential use of force?


The Thinking Machine: Paola Sturla calls on designers to renew their commitment to humanism - Harvard Graduate School of Design

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Smart cities, search engines, autonomous vehicles: The pairing of massive data sets and self-learning algorithms is transforming the world around us in ways that are not always easy to grasp. The strange ways computers "think" are hidden within opaque proprietary code. It has been called the "end of theory." There is a danger, says Paola Sturla, Lecturer in Landscape Architecture at the Harvard Graduate School of Design, that human agency will be nudged out of the picture. Sturla, who is trained as an architect and landscape architect, has called on designers to renew the tradition of humanism.


Richard Feynman: Can Machines Think?

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This is a Q&A excerpt on the topic of AI from a lecture by Richard Feynman from September 26th, 1985. This is a clip on the Lex Clips channel that I mostly use to post video clips from the Artificial Intelligence podcast, but occasionally I post favorite clips from lectures given by others. Hope you find these interesting, thought-provoking, and inspiring. If you do, please subscribe, click bell icon, and share! Artificial Intelligence podcast website: https://lexfridman.com/ai


The Age of Thinking Machines

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We live in the greatest time in human history. Only 200 years ago, for most Europeans, life was a struggle rather than a pleasure. Without antibiotics and hospitals, every infection was fatal. There was only a small elite of citizens who lived in the cities in relative prosperity. Freedom of opinion, human and civil rights were far away. Voting rights and decision-making were reserved for a class consisting of nobility, clergy, the military and rich citizens. The interests of the general population were virtually ignored.


The Big Nine: How the Tech Titans and Their Thinking Machines Could Warp Humanity: Amy Webb: 9781541773752: Amazon.com: Books

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"Rather than questioning the character of thinking machines, futurist Amy Webb turns a critical eye on the humans behind the computers. With AI's development overwhelmingly driven by nine tech powerhouses, she asks: Is it possible for the technology to serve the best interests of everyone?"―Wired "Webb's assessments are based on analyses of patent filings, policy briefings, interviews and other sources. She paints vivid pictures of how AI could benefit the average person, via precision medicine or smarter dating apps...Her forecasts are provocative and unsettlingly plausible."―Science News "Instead of predicting the future, Webb lays out scenarios for optimistic, pragmatic, and catastrophic outcomes -- all extrapolated from current facts. However impractical you may find the idea of a common Apple-Amazon operating system named Applezon, considering potential scenarios is a fantastically healthy exercise, because anyone who tells you they know how AI is going to turn out is lying."―VentureBeat


Dariusz Prokopowicz PhD of economy. MBA. MoR. Head of Innovation Department of International Institute of Innovations Science-Education-Development. Chief Economist HSI Capital Ltd. Member Supervisory Polish Trade and Service Centers Ltd. Vice-president KPH OIG. Poland Cardinal Stefan Wyszynski University in Warsaw, Warsaw Faculty of History and Social Sciences

#artificialintelligence

Technologies of advanced data processing Industry 4.0, including above all Learning machines and Artificial Intelligence is also used in the attempt to build machines equipped with the ability to self-improve the performed tasks and programmed activities. Perhaps in the future there will be an attempt to build artificial awareness in which supercomputers will be equipped. In my opinion, consciousness can only be mathematically modeled in theory. Even if a mathematical model of artificial consciousness were built using ICT and Industry 4.0 and in the future Industry 5.0 and based on this model artificial intelligence would be created in quantum computers installed e.g. in autonomous robots, androids, it will still be only artificial intelligence without emotions and the essence of human consciousness. An analysis of the nature of human thoughts is necessary to distinguish between human intelligence and various artificial intelligence technologies being developed.


Dariusz Prokopowicz PhD of economy. MBA. MoR. Head of Innovation Department of International Institute of Innovations Science-Education-Development. Chief Economist HSI Capital Ltd. Member Supervisory Polish Trade and Service Centers Ltd. Vice-president KPH OIG. Poland Cardinal Stefan Wyszynski University in Warsaw, Warsaw Faculty of History and Social Sciences

#artificialintelligence

Technologies of advanced data processing Industry 4.0, including above all Learning machines and Artificial Intelligence is also used in the attempt to build machines equipped with the ability to self-improve the performed tasks and programmed activities. Perhaps in the future there will be an attempt to build artificial awareness in which supercomputers will be equipped. In my opinion, consciousness can only be mathematically modeled in theory. Even if a mathematical model of artificial consciousness were built using ICT and Industry 4.0 and in the future Industry 5.0 and based on this model artificial intelligence would be created in quantum computers installed e.g. in autonomous robots, androids, it will still be only artificial intelligence without emotions and the essence of human consciousness. An analysis of the nature of human thoughts is necessary to distinguish between human intelligence and various artificial intelligence technologies being developed.