Chess is one of the world's most popular games. Its popularity and complexity make it an interesting research domain for artificial intelligence. The number of board positions we can get to from the initial board state is larger than the number of atoms in the universe! Chess playing machines have been the subject of human interest for hundreds of years, but only on the last few decades have they been able to compete with (and beat) the world champions. Chess programs now have their own tournaments.
When IBM's Deep Blue chess machine defeated world chess champion Garry Kasparov in 1997, the world responded with surprise and angst at how far computers had come: "Be Afraid," read a Weekly Standard headline reacting to the news. Artificial intelligence has since made advancements that were unthinkable just 20 years ago -- in the past decade alone, robots have achieved dominance over humans in games far more complex than chess. While most of those advances can't be quantified with milestones like chess victories, programmers have continued the tradition of building machines designed to outsmart humans at our own games. Here's a comprehensive list of the competitions, games, and challenges that robots beat humans at in the past decade.
This is a clip from a conversation with Garry Kasparov from Oct 2019. You can watch the full conversation here: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v 8RVa0... (more links below) Podcast full episodes playlist: https://www.youtube.com/playlist?list... Podcasts clips playlist: https://www.youtube.com/playlist?list... Podcast website: https://lexfridman.com/ai Note: I select clips with insights from these much longer conversation with the hope of helping make these ideas more accessible and discoverable. Ultimately, this podcast is a small side hobby for me with the goal of sharing and discussing ideas. I did a poll and 92% of people either liked or loved the posting of daily clips, 2% were indifferent, and 6% hated it, some suggesting that I post them on a separate YouTube channel.
In 1955, computer scientist John McCarthy coined the term artificial intelligence. Just five years before, English Mathematician Alan Turing had posed the question, "Can Machines Think?" Turing proposed a test: could a computer be built which is indistinguishable from a human? This test, often referred to as the Turing Test, has sparked the imagination of AI researchers ever since and been a key idea in the field. In the late 1990s artificial intelligence made its mark again, when IBM's Deep Blue beat the world chess champion Gary Kasparov. Since then, advances in computing power and data accumulation have led to a proliferation of new technologies driven by artificial intelligence.
In the 200th episode of The Life Scientific, Jim Al-Khalili finds out why Demis Hassabis wants to create artificial intelligence and use it to help humanity. Thinking about how to win at chess when he was a boy got Demis thinking about the process of thinking itself. Being able to program his first computer (a Sinclair Spectrum) felt miraculous. In computer chess, his two passions were combined. And a lifelong ambition to create artificial intelligence was born.
A small group of mujahidin is trekking through the mountains. They carry their Kalashnikov rifles on their shoulders, but they are not especially worried. The nearest enemy unit is several hours away. So high in the mountains, they would see them coming from a long distance. There are other dangers, though.
When you think of a lawyer's office, you typically visualize a cabin with row of books stacked up from top to bottom. Now imagine if they didn't have to read them either! ROSS Intelligence, an artificial intelligence based legal research software that gives answers to questions put to it in plain English. For instance, one could type in "is a non-compete clause legal in India? What is the position of the Bombay High Court?" and have Ross generate a response backed up with references including relevant judgments and readings.
In 1997 IBM Supercomputer Deep Blue defeated world chess champion Garry Kasparov by a four games to two score in a six game series. This was a landmark moment in the development of what we might call "thinking machines", as a computer had proven itself better than the best human in what was then the world's most prestigious strategy game. The benchmark of a machine defeating a human at chess has mattered for hundreds of years. Famously, the mechanical Turk developed in 1770 thrilled and confounded luminaries as notable as Napoleon Bonaparte and Benjamin Franklin. Simply an elaborate hoax, the human-powered, not-quite-automaton fooled the public for almost 100 years.
Garry Kasparov is considered by many to be the greatest chess player of all time. From 1986 until his retirement in 2005, he dominated the chess world, ranking world number 1 for most of those 19 years. While he has many historic matches against human chess players, in the long arc of history he may be remembered for his match again a machine, IBM's Deep Blue. His initial victories and eventual loss to Deep Blue captivated the imagination of the world of what role Artificial Intelligence systems may play in our civilization's future. That excitement inspired an entire generation of AI researchers, including myself, to get into the field.
During those 20 to 30 years, many of the AI milestones we know today were achieved. In 1997, world chess champion Gary Kasparov was defeated by IBM's Deep Blue, a chess playing computer program, while a speech recognition software developed by Dragon Systems, was implemented on Microsoft Windows. The year 2000 saw ASIMO, Honda's AI humanoid robot walk upright and on two legs. In 2011, IBM's Watson, a question-answering computer system, defeated two former champions in the TV game show Jeopardy. And most recently in 2016 and 2017, Google's AlphaGo algorithm won against the world's top champions in the ancient board game of Go.
Considering the public awareness of artificial intelligence and the speed new breathtaking progress is taking place, it seems to be just a matter of time when AI will surpass the human intelligence level. And yes, the headlines AI is writing are stunning! While the victory of the IBM chess computer Deep Blue over the former chess world champion Garry Kasparov in 1996 (and again in 1997) was something like the eighth wonder of the world, the victory of Googles AlphaGo over Lee Sedol in 2016 in the strategy board game "Go" was seen as predictable for many. AI development has undergone a vast acceleration during the last decade. Assuming a stable growth rate of AI development: Is AI supposed to surpass the human intelligence level over the next few years?