Chess is one of the world's most popular games. Its popularity and complexity make it an interesting research domain for artificial intelligence. The number of board positions we can get to from the initial board state is larger than the number of atoms in the universe! Chess playing machines have been the subject of human interest for hundreds of years, but only on the last few decades have they been able to compete with (and beat) the world champions. Chess programs now have their own tournaments.
Thanks to pop culture, it's not difficult to conjure an image of artificial intelligence. Whether it's WALL-E, R2-D2 or HAL, the technology often takes shape as a thinking, sentient being. AI enables a computer or computer-controlled robot to perform tasks commonly associated with human beings--such as the ability to have human-like conversations, reason, discover meaning, generalize or learn from past experience, according to George Despinic, senior product marketing manager at Mitel. Already, more than 60 percent of organizations have implemented AI. In fact, many are integrating it into their cloud communications solutions, using the technology to enhance the customer experience and improve productivity.
Man versus machine..Depositphotos enhanced by CogWorld Adding to the equation is that AI has now learnt the art of debate. The war between man and machines has begun. So, will it be Man-0, Machine-1 or Man-1, Machine-0? Remember when chess-playing computer Deep Blue defeated world chess champion Garry Kasparov? It was a Man-0 Machine-1, then.
In early December, researchers at DeepMind, the artificial-intelligence company owned by Google's parent corporation, Alphabet Inc., filed a dispatch from the frontiers of chess. A year earlier, on Dec. 5, 2017, the team had stunned the chess world with its announcement of AlphaZero, a machine-learning algorithm that had mastered not only chess but shogi, or Japanese chess, and Go. The algorithm started with no knowledge of the games beyond their basic rules. It then played against itself millions of times and learned from its mistakes. In a matter of hours, the algorithm became the best player, human or computer, the world has ever seen.
Google's Artificial Intelligence can now teach itself to beat humans at complex games without using knowledge given to it by human developers. AlphaZero, the game-playing AI created by Google sibling DeepMind, is able to master games like chess, shogi and Go just by reading the rule book. The'superhuman' computer program teaches itself to play these games with no prior knowledge except each game's rules. A study, led by American Association for the Advancement of science, shows that the program was able to teach itself the intricacies of each game until mastered. Google's AlphaZero has defeated one of the best chess programs in the world after learning the game from scratch in just four hours.
Garry Kasparov may have famously lost to IBM chess computer Deep Blue, but that doesn't mean he thinks the rise of artificial intelligence is necessarily a bad thing. AI has become one of the great, meaningless buzzwords of our time. In this video, the Chief Data Scientist of Dun and Bradstreet explains AI in clear business terms. The 1997 encounter between Kasparov and the supercomputer was the first defeat of a reigning world champion by a computer under tournament conditions, and is seen as a significant milestone in the evolution of computing -- and by many as an ominous sign that artificial intelligence (AI) was rapidly overtaking human capabilities. Over the last two decades, the concerns about AI -- in particular, the abilities of computers to replace humans in the workplace -- have only grown.
His concern is warranted and will require us to strike a balance between protecting the democratic and egalitarian values that made the Internet great to begin with while ensuring those values are used for good. The fundamental issue, then, in creating a 21st-century Internet becomes what changes are warranted and who will be responsible for defining and administering them. On the technology dimension, computer scientists and engineers must develop smarter systems for detecting, addressing, and preventing malicious content on the Web. Cerf's argument on behalf of user training is helpful but will not ultimately solve the problem of an untrustworthy, ungovernable, potentially malicious network. I myself recently fell for a phishing attack, which only proves that today's attacks can fool even savvy, experienced users.
Republican Bob Hugin is hoping to upset Democratic Sen. Bob Menendez in New Jersey's Senate race. New Jersey hasn't elected a Republican to the Senate in 46 years. But this fall, Democratic Sen. Bob Menendez is facing an unexpectedly strong and well-funded challenge from a Republican nominee named Bob Hugin, who is spending millions on negative ads reminding voters of Menendez's past ethics troubles. Menendez went on trial in federal court last year, accused of illegally accepting gifts from a wealthy donor. A mistrial was declared after the jury failed to reach a verdict, but later, the Senate Ethics Committee "severely admonished" Menendez.
Gamers have been pitting their wits and skill against computers since the earliest days of video games. The levels of difficulty were pre-programmed, and at a certain point in the game, the computer was simply unbeatable by all but the most gifted gamers. Over time, the concept of difficulty levels evolved. For example, "Madden" NFL Football games have four different levels (ranging from Rookie to All-Madden) that make running plays more difficult, while first-person shooter (FPS) games like "Duke Nukem 3D" follow the same type of tiered difficulty (ranging from Piece of Cake to Damn, I'm Good) that makes it tougher to stay alive and kill enemies. While creating different difficulty experiences has long been a discussion topic, something new happened in 2000 when "Perfect Dark" was released for the Nintendo 64.
I learned a few things from reading an excerpt from Yuval Noah Harari's book, 21 Lessons for the 21st Century, published in the October issue of The Atlantic. One is that it took a Google machine-learning program just four hours to teach itself and master chess, once the pinnacle of centuries of human intellectual effort, easily defeating the top-ranked computer chess engine in the world. Another is that artificial intelligence systems may be inherently anti-democratic and anti-human. New heights of computing power and data processing make it more efficient to centralize systems in authoritarian governments, Harari says, and will render humans increasingly irrelevant. "By 2050," he writes, "a useless class might emerge, the result not only of a shortage of jobs or a lack of relevant education but also of insufficient mental stamina to continue learning new skills."
Listen to Secret History of the Future via Apple Podcasts, Overcast, Spotify, Stitcher, or Google Play. It's 1783, and Paris is gripped by the prospect of a chess match. One of the contestants is François-André Philidor, who is considered the greatest chess player in Paris, and possibly the world. Everyone is so excited because Philidor is about to go head-to-head with the other biggest sensation in the chess world at the time. This story may sound a lot like Garry Kasparov taking on Deep Blue, IBM's chess-playing supercomputer.