Chess is one of the world's most popular games. Its popularity and complexity make it an interesting research domain for artificial intelligence. The number of board positions we can get to from the initial board state is larger than the number of atoms in the universe! Chess playing machines have been the subject of human interest for hundreds of years, but only on the last few decades have they been able to compete with (and beat) the world champions. Chess programs now have their own tournaments.
More than a decade has passed since the British government issued an apology to the mathematician Alan Turing. The tone of pained contrition was appropriate, given Britain's grotesquely ungracious treatment of Turing, who played a decisive role in cracking the German Enigma cipher, allowing Allied intelligence to predict where U-boats would strike and thus saving tens of thousands of lives. Unapologetic about his homosexuality, Turing had made a careless admission of an affair with a man, in the course of reporting a robbery at his home in 1952, and was arrested for an "act of gross indecency" (the same charge that had led to a jail sentence for Oscar Wilde in 1895). Turing was subsequently given a choice to serve prison time or undergo a hormone treatment meant to reverse the testosterone levels that made him desire men (so the thinking went at the time). Turing opted for the latter and, two years later, ended his life by taking a bite from an apple laced with cyanide.
Artificial intelligence (AI) has made astonishing progress in the last decade. AI can now drive cars, diagnose diseases from medical images, recommend movies, even whom you should date, make investment decisions, and create art that people have sold at auction. A lot of research today, however, focuses on teaching AI to do things the way we do them. For example, computer vision and natural language processing – two of the hottest research areas in the field – deal with building AI models that can see like humans and use language like humans. But instead of teaching computers to imitate human thought, the time has now come to let them evolve on their own, so instead of becoming like us, they have a chance to become better than us.
Many prominent thinkers have warned of the risks inherent in AI. However, they also point to its vast potential to free us from mundane tasks, to gain deeper insights and to boost productivity. There's no doubt that AI has huge potential to improve our everyday lives – at least before the robots take over. Because it already has, and for decades. We can thank AI for Deep Blue, the first computer chess playing program, for driverless cars and, speaking personally, for Microsoft email spam filters.
A workshop held in 1956 at Dartmouth College, Hanover, NH, is usually considered the beginning of artificial intelligence. Participants included John McCarthy and Marvin Minski. Alan Turing and Konrad Zuse, who already dealt with this topic in the 1940s, are also mentioned as the founders of this discipline. For decades, machine chess was considered the highlight of artificial intelligence. It was not until 1997 that IBM's Deep Blue program was able to beat then-world chess champion Garry Kasparov.
'It's not opening the gates of hell, but it's not a paradise,' Kasparov says about AI. Artificial intelligence learns from us, so we should really fear bad actors, not killer robots. Garry Kasparov was one of the first victims of the AI automation revolution. His loss to IBM's Deep Blue made him the first human chess champion to lose a match to a computer. But Kasparov is not jaded; his book, Deep Thinking, explores how AI can actually help us become more human. The real challenge, Kasparov told me at SXSW in Austin earlier this month, is keeping these tools from the humans who want to use them to do harm. And in that regard, we may already be too late. Dan Costa: After a career playing chess and battling Deep Blue, you've since then become a chess AI expert of sorts.
Reactive Machines – This AI system doesn't have its memory that is why it cannot store things. The basic example for reactive machines are Deep blue, which is the IBM Chess Program, this example is relevant here because Deep Blue can easily identify the pieces on the chessboard and can easily make the predictions about the game, but doesn't have memory which enables Deep Blue to use its past experience for informing the future ones. It can only analysis the possible moves of both the players and can choose the most strategic move. Limited Memory – This AI system has limited memory because of that, they are able to use their past experience for informing future decisions. Some of its decision-making functions are used in the self-driving car.
The waves of the third artificial intelligence (AI) boom are now sweeping across Japan in the same way as earlier fads did in the 1950s and the 1980s. Referring to the ongoing craze in the country, leading Japanese economic magazine Shukan toyo keizai wrote in its 5 December 2015 issue, "not a single day passes by without hearing about AI." Many companies in Japan are making AI-related announcements one after another. Seminars on AI are held in Tokyo almost every day. But the question we must ask is this: Is the development of AI good news for mankind? From early on, many people in the world outside Japan forecast a dystopian future if AI were to surpass human intelligence. To cite an early example, Bill Joy, a U.S. computer scientist dubbed the Thomas Edison of the Internet, cautioned that robots with higher intelligence may compete with humans and threaten the latter's survival when they become able to self-replicate in "Why the Future Doesn't Need Us," an article he published in 2000. More recently, British theoretical physicist and cosmologist Stephen Hawking expressed the fear that "the development of full artificial intelligence could spell the end of the human race." Speaking in concert, Microsoft founder Bill Gates also said, "I am in the camp that is concerned about the threat of super intelligence [to human beings］." Behind their concern, there is the feeling of unease that humans will stop being the owners of the highest intelligence on earth. High intelligence is the very thing that has allowed humans to consider themselves as special beings distinguished from other animals. What will happen if and when AI surpasses human intelligence? Will humans really be able to continue their dominance as rulers of the earth in this situation? Won't machines deprive humans of many intellectual jobs and dominate them, in effect? These arguments about the possible threats posed by AI have been small in number in Japan until recently, however.
Hong Kong (CNN Business)A South Korean master of the ancient strategy game Go has announced his retirement from professional competition due to the rise of what he says is unbeatable artificial intelligence. The news that Lee Se-dol is bowing out comes three years after he lost in a closely watched series against Google's AlphaGo in 2016. Lee managed to win one game out of five against Google's computer program -- the only time it has been beaten in competition -- but was ultimately defeated. Since then, AlphaGo has become even more advanced, beating other top players around the world. "With the debut of AI in Go games, I've realized that I'm not at the top, even if I become the number one through frantic efforts," Lee told South Korea's Yonhap news agency this week.
When IBM's Deep Blue chess machine defeated world chess champion Garry Kasparov in 1997, the world responded with surprise and angst at how far computers had come: "Be Afraid," read a Weekly Standard headline reacting to the news. Artificial intelligence has since made advancements that were unthinkable just 20 years ago -- in the past decade alone, robots have achieved dominance over humans in games far more complex than chess. While most of those advances can't be quantified with milestones like chess victories, programmers have continued the tradition of building machines designed to outsmart humans at our own games. Here's a comprehensive list of the competitions, games, and challenges that robots beat humans at in the past decade.
This is a clip from a conversation with Garry Kasparov from Oct 2019. You can watch the full conversation here: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v 8RVa0... (more links below) Podcast full episodes playlist: https://www.youtube.com/playlist?list... Podcasts clips playlist: https://www.youtube.com/playlist?list... Podcast website: https://lexfridman.com/ai Note: I select clips with insights from these much longer conversation with the hope of helping make these ideas more accessible and discoverable. Ultimately, this podcast is a small side hobby for me with the goal of sharing and discussing ideas. I did a poll and 92% of people either liked or loved the posting of daily clips, 2% were indifferent, and 6% hated it, some suggesting that I post them on a separate YouTube channel.