Can Computers be Creative? How? How can [a creative idea] arise, then, if not by magic? And how can one impossible idea be more surprising, more creative, than another? How can creativity happen?
– from Margaret Boden. Creativity and Unpredictability. Stanford Electronic Humanities Review 4(2), 1995.
At its core, Artificial Intelligence and its partner Machine Learning (abbreviated as AI/ML) is math. Specifically, it's probability – the application of weighted probabilistic networks at a computational scale we've never been able to perform before, which allows the computed probabilities to become self-training. It's that characteristic more than any other that makes AI seem like wizardry. The little cylinder on the kitchen counter that suddenly lights up when you call it by name feels like something out of science fiction, but that entire process is the end product of the re-ingestion of new data to help fine-tune a highly complex probabilistic graph. The voice assistant recognizes its "name" not because it's self-aware but because it has been programmed to match an audio waveform to a database of known waveforms with certain characteristics.
Human intelligence is the quality of brain that learns, extracts knowledge, acquires abstract concepts from its surrounding, whereas artificial intelligence is the ability of a machine to mimic the same tasks learning from data it receives. Intelligence is a quality that belongs to humans and if machines could play the game right, our lives would become much easier. Timo Elliott, Innovation Evangelist, SAP said, "The rise of artificial intelligence is raising the premium on tasks that only humans can do: it is freeing workers from drudgery and allowing them to spend time on more strategic and valuable business activities. Instead of forcing people to spend time and effort on tasks that we find hard but computers find easy, we will be rewarded for doing what humans do best -- and artificial intelligence will help make us all more human." However, despite significant advancements, AI still could not match up to human intelligence in most aspects.
Artificial intelligence (AI) has reached a tipping point, leveraging the massive pools of data gathered by every app, website, and device in our lives to make increasingly sophisticated decisions on our behalf. AI is at work in our inboxes sorting and blocking emails. It takes and processes our increasingly complex requests through voice assistants. It supplements customer support through chatbots, and heavily automates complex processes to reduce the workload for knowledge workers. Evidently, devices can adapt on the fly to human behavior.
The most immediate benefit of artificial intelligence (AI) for business is increasingly clear: it's a huge opportunity for increased productivity. Gartner recently calculated that In 2021, AI augmentation will create €2.6 trillion of business value and save 6.2 billion man-hours globally and a survey by McKinsey has estimated that AI analytics could add around $13trn, or 16%, to annual global GDP by 2030. The easiest and fastest way to implement business AI is to add machine learning to existing business processes. Automation brings the most value when it's applied to narrow, repetitive business decisions that are made thousands of times a day, replacing the more boring aspects of knowledge work. For example, machine learning has proved successful at automating repetitive finance tasks such as the automatic matching of invoices and payments, increasing rates from 70% to 94% in just a few weeks--resulting in massive savings in time and effort.
The increase in the number of cancer cases worldwide is a major cause for concern for the medical community. Doctor Alexandru Floares, a speaker at a 3-day workshop organized by the Pontifical Academy for Life on Ethics and Artificial Intelligence (AI), spoke to Vatican Radio on the potential for larger strides in the field of oncology and medical research through the efficiency that AI provides. Dr. Floares, a Neurologist, specialist in AI applications in Oncology, and President of Solutions of Artificial Intelligence Applications (SAIA), gave a presentation titled "AI in Oncology." In his interview with Vatican Radio, Dr. Floares spoke on issues bordering on access to data for medical research, solutions to the emerging issues surrounding the use of AI in healthcare, and the revolutionary role of AI in the field of medicine. "The problems related to applying AI to medicine and oncology can be solved relatively easily," he said.
We know machines and artificial intelligence (AI) can be many things, but can they ever really be creative? When I interviewed Professor Marcus du Sautoy, the author of The Creativity Code, he shared that the role of AI is a "kind of catalyst to push our human creativity." It's the machine and human collaboration that produces exciting results--novel approaches and combinations that likely wouldn't develop if either were working alone. Can Machines And Artificial Intelligence Be Creative? Instead of thinking about AI as replacing human creativity, it's beneficial to examine ways that AI can be used as a tool to augment human creativity.
The European Patent Office recently turned down an application for a patent that described a food container. This was not because the invention was not novel or useful, but because it was created by artificial intelligence. By law, inventors need to be actual people. This isn't the first invention by AI – machines have produced innovations ranging from scientific papers and books to new materials and music. That said, being creative is clearly one of the most remarkable human traits.
The European Patent Office recently turned down an application for a patent that described a food container. This was not because the invention was not novel or useful, but because it was created by artificial intelligence (AI). By law, inventors need to be actual people. This isn't the first invention by AI – machines have produced innovations ranging from scientific papers and books to new materials and music. That said, being creative is clearly one of the most remarkable human traits.
Will artificial intelligence (AI) create an environment where design thinking skills are more valuable than data science skills? Will AI alter how we define human intelligence? Creativity is the application of imagination plus exploration with a strong tolerance to learn through failure. Innovation and creativity are the human ability and willingness to ask provocative questions (like Tom Hanks in the movie Big); embrace diverse ideas and perspectives; blend these different ideas into a new perspective (frame); and explore, test, fail, and learn to apply the new blended perspective to real-world challenges. No, that definition doesn't exactly fit into our ACT, SAT, GMAT tests of intelligence, and that is exactly the point!