If you are looking for an answer to the question What is Artificial Intelligence? and you only have a minute, then here's the definition the Association for the Advancement of Artificial Intelligence offers on its home page: "the scientific understanding of the mechanisms underlying thought and intelligent behavior and their embodiment in machines."
However, if you are fortunate enough to have more than a minute, then please get ready to embark upon an exciting journey exploring AI (but beware, it could last a lifetime) …
We use the term imaging sciences to refer to the overarching spectrum of scientific and technological contexts which involve images in digital format including, among others, image and video processing, scientific visualization, computer graphics, animations in games and simulators, remote sensing imagery, and also the wide set of associated application areas that have become ubiquitous during the last decade in science, art, human-computer interaction, entertainment, social networks, and many others. As an area that combines mathematics, engineering, and computer science, this discipline arose in a few universities in Argentina mostly in the form of elective classes and small research projects in electrical engineering or computer science departments. Only in the mid-2000s did some initiatives aiming to generate joint activities and to provide identity and visibility to the discipline start to appear. In this short paper, we present a brief history of the three laboratories with the most relevant research and development (R&D) activities in the discipline in Argentina, namely the Imaging Sciences Laboratory of the Universidad Nacional del Sur, the PLADEMA Institute at the Universidad Nacional del Centro de la Provincia de Buenos Aires, and the Image Processing Laboratory at the Universidad Nacional de Mar del Plata. The Imaging Sciences Laboratorya of the Electrical and Computer Engineering Department of the Universidad Nacional del Sur Bahía Blanca began its activities in the 1990s as a pioneer in Argentina and Latin America in research and teaching in computer graphics, and in visualization.
The concept of neural networks is widely used for data analysis nowadays. An Artificial Neural Network (ANN) is a piece of computing system designed to simulate the way the human brain analyses and processes information. Ultimately, neural network software is used to simulate, research, develop and apply ANN, software concept adapted from biological neural networks. In some cases, a wider array of adaptive systems such as artificial intelligence and machine learning are also benefited. ANNs are lone performers and not intended to produce general neural networks that can be integrated into other software.
This work extends the analysis of the theoretical results presented within the paper Is Q-Learning Provably Efficient? by Jin et al. We include a survey of related research to contextualize the need for strengthening the theoretical guarantees related to perhaps the most important threads of model-free reinforcement learning. We also expound upon the reasoning used in the proofs to highlight the critical steps leading to the main result showing that Q-learning with UCB exploration achieves a sample efficiency that matches the optimal regret that can be achieved by any model-based approach.
Reinforcement learning (RL) is a promising field to enhance robotic autonomy and decision making capabilities for space robotics, something which is challenging with traditional techniques due to stochasticity and uncertainty within the environment. RL can be used to enable lunar cave exploration with infrequent human feedback, faster and safer lunar surface locomotion or the coordination and collaboration of multi-robot systems. However, there are many hurdles making research challenging for space robotic applications using RL and machine learning, particularly due to insufficient resources for traditional robotics simulators like CoppeliaSim. Our solution to this is an open source modular platform called Reinforcement Learning for Simulation based Training of Robots, or RL STaR, that helps to simplify and accelerate the application of RL to the space robotics research field. This paper introduces the RL STaR platform, and how researchers can use it through a demonstration.
We present NavACL, a method of automatic curriculum learning tailored to the navigation task. NavACL is simple to train and efficiently selects relevant tasks using geometric features. In our experiments, deep reinforcement learning agents trained using NavACL in collision-free environments significantly outperform state-of-the-art agents trained with uniform sampling -- the current standard. Furthermore, our agents are able to navigate through unknown cluttered indoor environments to semantically-specified targets using only RGB images. Collision avoidance policies and frozen feature networks support transfer to unseen real-world environments, without any modification or retraining requirements. We evaluate our policies in simulation, and in the real world on a ground robot and a quadrotor drone. Videos of real-world results are available in the supplementary material
Simulators that can rapidly test trillions of options would accelerate the slow and costly process of human clinical trials. The magnitude of the Covid-19 pandemic will largely depend on how quickly safe and effective vaccines and treatments can be developed and tested. Many assume a widely available vaccine is years away, if ever. Others believe that a 12- to 18-month development cycle is a given. Our best bet to reduce even that record-breaking timeline is by using artificial intelligence. The problem is twofold: discovering the right set of molecules among billions of possibilities, and then waiting for clinical trials.
The long-term mission of conversational AI research is to develop at scale conversational assistant systems, also known as task-oriented bots or task bots in short, which are robust enough that (1) they can help users accomplish various tasks ranging from question answering and restaurant reservation to travel planning, (2) their responses are always interpretable, controllable, and reliable, even in a highly dynamic environment (e.g., due to users changing back and forth among different tasks and topics), and (3) they can transfer the knowledge and skills learned in one task to other tasks. Despite decades of research, the mission remains unfulfilled. Almost all task bots used in real-world applications are developed using task-specific, handcrafted rules and programs - an approach that fundamentally does not scale. Although machine learning methods are critical to the development of many robust NLP systems, such as machine translation and speech recognition, they play a far less important role in building task bots. For example, deep-learning based neural approaches to conversational AI, which become increasingly important as a research area , have not widely used for building commercial task bots yet because they are not robust enough.
To drive purchase in online advertising, it is of the advertiser's great interest to optimize the sequential advertising strategy whose performance and interpretability are both important. The lack of interpretability in existing deep reinforcement learning methods makes it not easy to understand, diagnose and further optimize the strategy. In this paper, we propose our Deep Intents Sequential Advertising (DISA) method to address these issues. The key part of interpretability is to understand a consumer's purchase intent which is, however, unobservable (called hidden states). In this paper, we model this intention as a latent variable and formulate the problem as a Partially Observable Markov Decision Process (POMDP) where the underlying intents are inferred based on the observable behaviors. Large-scale industrial offline and online experiments demonstrate our method's superior performance over several baselines. The inferred hidden states are analyzed, and the results prove the rationality of our inference.
Currently available quadrotor simulators have a rigid and highly-specialized structure: either are they really fast, physically accurate, or photo-realistic. In this work, we propose a paradigm-shift in the development of simulators: moving the trade-off between accuracy and speed from the developers to the end-users. We use this design idea to develop a novel modular quadrotor simulator: Flightmare. Flightmare is composed of two main components: a configurable rendering engine built on Unity and a flexible physics engine for dynamics simulation. Those two components are totally decoupled and can run independently from each other. This makes our simulator extremely fast: rendering achieves speeds of up to 230 Hz, while physics simulation of up to 200,000 Hz. In addition, Flightmare comes with several desirable features: (i) a large multi-modal sensor suite, including an interface to extract the 3D point-cloud of the scene; (ii) an API for reinforcement learning which can simulate hundreds of quadrotors in parallel; and (iii) an integration with a virtual-reality headset for interaction with the simulated environment. We demonstrate the flexibility of Flightmare by using it for two completely different robotic tasks: learning a sensorimotor control policy for a quadrotor and path-planning in a complex 3D environment.
With the rise of online e-commerce platforms, more and more customers prefer to shop online. To sell more products, online platforms introduce various modules to recommend items with different properties such as huge discounts. A web page often consists of different independent modules. The ranking policies of these modules are decided by different teams and optimized individually without cooperation, which might result in competition between modules. Thus, the global policy of the whole page could be sub-optimal. In this paper, we propose a novel multi-agent cooperative reinforcement learning approach with the restriction that different modules cannot communicate. Our contributions are three-fold. Firstly, inspired by a solution concept in game theory named correlated equilibrium, we design a signal network to promote cooperation of all modules by generating signals (vectors) for different modules. Secondly, an entropy-regularized version of the signal network is proposed to coordinate agents' exploration of the optimal global policy. Furthermore, experiments based on real-world e-commerce data demonstrate that our algorithm obtains superior performance over baselines.