If you are looking for an answer to the question What is Artificial Intelligence? and you only have a minute, then here's the definition the Association for the Advancement of Artificial Intelligence offers on its home page: "the scientific understanding of the mechanisms underlying thought and intelligent behavior and their embodiment in machines."
However, if you are fortunate enough to have more than a minute, then please get ready to embark upon an exciting journey exploring AI (but beware, it could last a lifetime) …
Recent research has studied the role of sparsity in high dimensional regression and signal reconstruction, establishing theoretical limits for recovering sparse models from sparse data. In this paper we study a variant of this problem where the original $n$ input variables are compressed by a random linear transformation to $m \ll n$ examples in $p$ dimensions, and establish conditions under which a sparse linear model can be successfully recovered from the compressed data. A primary motivation for this compression procedure is to anonymize the data and preserve privacy by revealing little information about the original data. Finally, we characterize the privacy properties of the compression procedure in information-theoretic terms, establishing upper bounds on the rate of information communicated between the compressed and uncompressed data that decay to zero. Papers published at the Neural Information Processing Systems Conference.
The notion of algorithmic stability has been used effectively in the past to derive tight generalization bounds. A key advantage of these bounds is that they are de- signed for specific learning algorithms, exploiting their particular properties. But, as in much of learning theory, existing stability analyses and bounds apply only in the scenario where the samples are independently and identically distributed (i.i.d.). In many machine learning applications, however, this assumption does not hold. The observations received by the learning algorithm often have some inherent temporal dependence, which is clear in system diagnosis or time series prediction problems.
We introduce supervised latent Dirichlet allocation (sLDA), a statistical model of labelled documents. We derive a maximum-likelihood procedure for parameter estimation, which relies on variational approximations to handle intractable posterior expectations. Prediction problems motivate this research: we use the fitted model to predict response values for new documents. We test sLDA on two real-world problems: movie ratings predicted from reviews, and web page popularity predicted from text descriptions. We illustrate the benefits of sLDA versus modern regularized regression, as well as versus an unsupervised LDA analysis followed by a separate regression.
Recently, Mahoney and Orecchia demonstrated that popular diffusion-based procedures to compute a quick approximation to the first nontrivial eigenvector of a data graph Laplacian exactly solve certain regularized Semi-Definite Programs (SDPs). In this paper, we extend that result by providing a statistical interpretation of their approximation procedure. Our interpretation will be analogous to the manner in which l2-regularized or l1-regularized l2 regression (often called Ridge regression and Lasso regression, respectively) can be interpreted in terms of a Gaussian prior or a Laplace prior, respectively, on the coefficient vector of the regression problem. Our framework will imply that the solutions to the Mahoney-Orecchia regularized SDP can be interpreted as regularized estimates of the pseudoinverse of the graph Laplacian. Conversely, it will imply that the solution to this regularized estimation problem can be computed very quickly by running, e.g., the fast diffusion-based PageRank procedure for computing an approximation to the first nontrivial eigenvector of the graph Laplacian.
Despite the variety of robust regression methods that have been developed, current regression formulations are either NP-hard, or allow unbounded response to even a single leverage point. We present a general formulation for robust regression --Variational M-estimation--that unifies a number of robust regression methods while allowing a tractable approximation strategy. We develop an estimator that requires only polynomial-time, while achieving certain robustness and consistency guarantees. An experimental evaluation demonstrates the effectiveness of the new estimation approach compared to standard methods. Papers published at the Neural Information Processing Systems Conference.
Multitask learning addressed the problem of learning related tasks whose information can be shared each other. In this paper we consider the problem learning multiple related tasks where tasks consist of both continuous and discrete outputs from a common set of input variables that lie in a high-dimensional space. All of the tasks are related in the sense that they share the same set of relevant input variables, but the amount of influence of each input on different outputs may vary. We formulate this problem as a combination of linear regression and logistic regression and model the joint sparsity as L1/Linf and L1/L2-norm of the model parameters. Among several possible applications, our approach addresses an important open problem in genetic association mapping, where we are interested in discovering genetic markers that influence multiple correlated traits jointly.
Heavy-tailed distributions are often used to enhance the robustness of regression and classification methods to outliers in output space. Often, however, we are confronted with outliers'' in input space, which are isolated observations in sparsely populated regions. We show that heavy-tailed process priors (which we construct from Gaussian processes via a copula), can be used to improve robustness of regression and classification estimators to such outliers by selectively shrinking them more strongly in sparse regions than in dense regions. We carry out a theoretical analysis to show that selective shrinkage occurs provided the marginals of the heavy-tailed process have sufficiently heavy tails. The analysis is complemented by experiments on biological data which indicate significant improvements of estimates in sparse regions while producing competitive results in dense regions.
Multi-metric learning techniques learn local metric tensors in different parts of a feature space. With such an approach, even simple classifiers can be competitive with the state-of-the-art because the distance measure locally adapts to the structure of the data. The learned distance measure is, however, non-metric, which has prevented multi-metric learning from generalizing to tasks such as dimensionality reduction and regression in a principled way. We prove that, with appropriate changes, multi-metric learning corresponds to learning the structure of a Riemannian manifold. We then show that this structure gives us a principled way to perform dimensionality reduction and regression according to the learned metrics.
We provide some insights into how task correlations in multi-task Gaussian process (GP) regression affect the generalization error and the learning curve. We analyze the asymmetric two-task case, where a secondary task is to help the learning of a primary task. Within this setting, we give bounds on the generalization error and the learning curve of the primary task. Our approach admits intuitive understandings of the multi-task GP by relating it to single-task GPs. For the case of one-dimensional input-space under optimal sampling with data only for the secondary task, the limitations of multi-task GP can be quantified explicitly.
We address the problem of general supervised learning when data can only be accessed through an (indefinite) similarity function between data points. Existing work on learning with indefinite kernels has concentrated solely on binary/multiclass classification problems. We propose a model that is generic enough to handle any supervised learning task and also subsumes the model previously proposed for classification. We give a ''goodness'' criterion for similarity functions w.r.t. a given supervised learning task and then adapt a well-known landmarking technique to provide efficient algorithms for supervised learning using ''good'' similarity functions. We demonstrate the effectiveness of our model on three important supervised learning problems: a) real-valued regression, b) ordinal regression and c) ranking where we show that our method guarantees bounded generalization error.