If you are looking for an answer to the question What is Artificial Intelligence? and you only have a minute, then here's the definition the Association for the Advancement of Artificial Intelligence offers on its home page: "the scientific understanding of the mechanisms underlying thought and intelligent behavior and their embodiment in machines."
However, if you are fortunate enough to have more than a minute, then please get ready to embark upon an exciting journey exploring AI (but beware, it could last a lifetime) …
Physicists built the Large Hadron Collider to study the inner workings of the universe. Inside a 27-kilometer underground ring straddling the French-Swiss border, the machine smashes protons together at nearly the speed of light to produce--fleetingly--the smallest constituent building blocks of nature. Sifting through snapshots of these collisions, LHC researchers look for new particles and scrutinize known ones, including their most famous find, in 2012: the Higgs boson, whose behavior explains why other fundamental particles like electrons and quarks have mass. Less well known is the intricate software engine that powers such discoveries. With particle collisions occurring at approximately a billion times per second, the facility generates about 40 terabytes of data per second, according to LHC physicist Maurizio Pierini.
The universe could be a neural network -- an interconnected computational system similar in structure to the human brain -- a controversial theory has proposed. As created by computer scientists, artificial neural networks are made up of various nodes -- equivalent to biological neurons -- that process and pass on signals. The network can change as it is used -- such as by increasing the weight given to certain nodes and connections -- allowing it to'learn' as it goes along. For example, given a set of cat pictures to study, a network can learn to pick out characteristic cat features on its own -- and so tell them apart from other animals. However, physicist Vitaly Vanchurin of the University of Minnesota Duluth believes that -- on a fundamental level -- everything we know may be one of these systems.
Popular media depictions of AI often involve apocalyptic visions of killer robots, humans mined for resources, or the elimination of the human race altogether. Even the rosier visions of an AI-driven world imagine most traditional human efforts and behaviors replaced with machines. Our collective imaginations of AI are often focused on this "singularity"--an irreversible point when technology overtakes humanity. However, the realization of this kind of artificial general intelligence (AGI), where a machine can perform any cognitive task a human can, remains a long way off. It is true that there have been impressive advances in machine learning (ML) and that algorithms can now best humans at various tasks.
Cars that drive themselves may one day improve road safety by reducing human error – and hopefully deaths by accidents too. One morning in March 2019, a brand new, cherry-red Tesla Model 3 sat in front of a Sheraton hotel in Vancouver, Canada. Once they were inside the car, Amat Cama and Richard Zhu, both tall and lean twentysomethings, needed only a few minutes. They exploited a weakness in the browser of the "infotainment" system to get inside one of the car's computers. Then they used the system to run a few lines of their own code, and soon their commands were appearing on the screen. Cama and Zhu got the car, but they weren't thieves.
Even though there are many great AI software tools on the market, you still need to assemble a strong team when it comes to putting together projects. The technology is complex and evolving. There are also the challenges of change management within an organization. So then what are the roles for an AI project? Well, first of all, there needs to be an executive sponsor.
This month, the cover of New Scientist ran the headline, "Is the Universe Conscious?" Mathematician and physicist Johannes Kleiner, at the Munich Center for Mathematical Philosophy in Germany, told author Michael Brooks that a mathematically precise definition of consciousness could mean that the cosmos is suffused with subjective experience. "This could be the beginning of a scientific revolution," Kleiner said, referring to research he and others have been conducting. Kleiner and his colleagues are focused on the Integrated Information Theory of consciousness, one of the more prominent theories of consciousness today. As Kleiner notes, IIT (as the theory is known) is thoroughly panpsychist because all integrated information has at least one bit of consciousness.
Scientists believe the world will see it's first working thermonuclear fusion reactor by the year 2025. That's a tall order in short form, especially when you consider that fusion has been "almost here" for nearly a century. Fusion reactors – not to be confused with common fission reactors – are the holiest of Grails when it comes to physics achievements. According to most experts, a successful fusion reactor would function as a near-unlimited source of energy. In other words, if there's a working demonstration of an actual fusion reactor by 2025, we could see an end to the global energy crisis within a few decades.
XGBoost is one of the most used libraries fora data science. At the time XGBoost came into existence, it was lightning fast compared to its nearest rival Python's Scikit-learn GBM. But as the times have progressed, it has been rivaled by some awesome libraries like LightGBM and Catboost, both on speed as well as accuracy. I, for one, use LightGBM for most of the use cases where I have just got CPU for training. But when I have a GPU or multiple GPUs at my disposal, I still love to train with XGBoost.
The World Health Organization believes Gilead Sciences Inc.'s remdesivir, a drug used to treat Ebola virus, might be effective against the new coronavirus, Dr. Lai noted. Chloroquine, used to prevent and treat malaria, also potentially could be useful, XtalPi computational research suggests. XtalPi is searching for other potential treatments and a vaccine. The company builds tools and platforms and conducts early-stage research that is carried further by pharmaceutical companies, according to communications director Ruyu Wang. It hopes the methods and workflows it developed for coronavirus research will help accelerate research in future pandemics.