neurology


Machine Learning Will Reshape Diagnostic Medicine

#artificialintelligence

Diagnosing disease is one of the more labor-intensive aspects of the healthcare system. It also happens to be one that is particularly well-suited to being performed by machine learning algorithms. While work in this area is in its early stages, the technology is evolving rapidly and appears poised to transform diagnostic medicine. Thanks largely to the huge volumes of data collected from patients, medical diagnostics is an ideal domain for machine learning. Much of the diagnostic data is image-based, such as X-rays, MRI scans, and ultrasound imagery, but can also include things like genomic profiles, epidemiological data, blood tests, biopsy results, and even medical research papers.


How Disabled Students Benefit From Assistive Technology In Classrooms

International Business Times

Technology has modernized the system of education for students with various disabilities, making it easier for them to keep up with academic curriculums and even compete with their peers in classrooms. According to Open Colleges, most of the common disabilities can be categorized into any of the following classification -- Physical (students using wheelchairs, prosthetic limbs, or dealing with diseases such as muscular dystrophy, Lou Gehrig's disease, multiple sclerosis, etc), Sensory (students lacking in normal visual, hearing or speaking abilities), Cognitive (students with weaknesses when it comes to memory, self-expression, information processing, and other learning disabilities), Psychiatric (students may suffer from an array of challenges, ranging from social phobias, bipolar and/or other personality disorders), Health-related (students who have chronic illnesses like cancer, diabetes or epilepsy) A Palestinian child reads braille during a class at Al-Nour, which translates'we have seen,' Rehabilitation Center for the Visually Impaired, in Gaza City, Gaza Strip, May 7, 2006. Students who suffer from any form of disability might find it difficult to attend classes regularly, keep up with everything that is being taught and compete at the same level with children who are not plagued by the same impairments that they have. These students often need some extra assistance when it comes to performing academically. One of the best forms of assistance in today's times is the gift of technology.


The Troubled Marriage of Brains and Computers

Wall Street Journal

That moment was the culmination of two decades of work in brain-machine interface technology, a research field I pioneered with my colleagues at Duke University. Early experiments involved rats and monkeys moving levers, robots and avatar bodies using their thoughts. My colleagues and I believe that we can apply what we've learned about neuroplasticity--the ability of the brain to change over time--to a range of neurological diseases, including Parkinson's disease, epilepsy, stroke, cerebral palsy and even autism. Scientists from university labs to Silicon Valley are working on two additional ideas conceived in my lab: connecting brains to form a network, or brainet, and developing a communication method that lets people message one another directly brain-to-brain. Once brains are connected they could become a hackable system in which the thoughts and actions of connected individuals can be accessed and manipulated.


The Better World Tour comes home to Boston

MIT News

On Sept. 28, the Better World tour was back in MIT's own neighborhood, at the Boch Center Wang Theatre in downtown Boston. More than 1,000 MIT alumni and friends were in attendance to celebrate the MIT Campaign for a Better World, a galvanizing effort that has gathered momentum and participation since the its public launch in May 2016, at events around the world. Guests who might have thought that listening would be their only role in the program were in for a pleasant surprise. Eran Egozy '95, MNG '95, MIT professor of the practice in music technology, a cofounder of Harmonix Music Systems, and the creator of "Guitar Hero," kicked off the evening by inviting the audience to join him in a classic MIT experiment. Using a new music application called "Tutti" (Italian for "together") and audience members' cell phones, Egozy transformed the audience into an orchestra for a rendition of "Engineered Engineers," a composition created for the event by Evan Ziporyn, the Kenan Sahin Distinguished Professor and Music and Theater Arts chair.


We Need Computers with Empathy

MIT Technology Review

I was rehearsing a speech for an AI conference recently when I happened to mention Amazon Alexa. At which point Alexa woke up and announced: "Playing Selena Gomez." I had to yell "Alexa, stop!" a few times before she even heard me. But Alexa was oblivious to my annoyance. Like the majority of virtual assistants and other technology out there, she's clueless about what we're feeling.


Flipboard on Flipboard

#artificialintelligence

What's the secret to success? Some would argue that insanely successful people possess traits like having a vision, showing gratitude, being honest, learning from failure and having a high emotional intelligence. While these traits definitely play a role, the real secret to success comes down to science, particularly advancements in neuroscience, and how you can condition your brain to achieve your dreams and goals. The neuroscience of success can get complicated, but it's really about how your brain functions in three different areas: reticular activating system (RAS), the release of dopamine and your memory. If you're not a science person, I'll try and make this all as painless as possible.


How machine learning is helping neuroscientists understand the brain

#artificialintelligence

The workings of the brain are the greatest mystery in science. Unlike our models of physics, strong enough to predict gravitational waves and unseen particles, our brain models explain only the most basic forms of perception, cognition, and behavior. We know plenty about the biology of neurons and glia, the cells that make up the brain. And we know enough about how they interact with each other to account for some reflexes and sensory phenomena, such as optical illusions. But even slightly more complex levels of mental experience have evaded our theories.


Dyslexia link to eye spots confusing brain, say scientists

BBC News

French scientists say they may have found a potential cause of dyslexia which could be treatable, hidden in tiny cells in the human eye. In a small study they found that most dyslexics had dominant round spots in both eyes - rather than in just one - leading to blurring and confusion. UK experts said the research was "very exciting" and highlighted the link between vision and dyslexia. But they said not all dyslexics were likely to have the same problem. People with dyslexia have difficulties learning to read, spell or write despite normal intelligence.


Intel's Nervana chips will bring AI to more parts of your life

#artificialintelligence

Intel CEO Brian Krzanich speaks at a 2016 AI event. Intel might be an old-school computing company, but the chipmaker thinks the latest trends in artificial intelligence will keep it an important part of your high-tech life. AI technology called machine learning today is instrumental to taking good photos, translating languages, recognizing your friends on Facebook, delivering search results, screening out spam and many other chores. It usually uses an approach called neural networks that works something like a human brain, not a sequence of if-this-then-that steps as in traditional computing. Lots of companies, including Apple, Google, Qualcomm and Nvidia, are designing chips to accelerate this sort of work.


French scientists find anomaly in retinal cells that may be the cause of dyslexia

The Japan Times

PARIS – A duo of French scientists said Wednesday they may have found a physiological, and seemingly treatable, cause for dyslexia hidden in tiny light-receptor cells in the human eye. In people with the reading disability, the cells were arranged in matching patterns in both eyes, which may be to blame for confusing the brain by producing "mirror" images, the co-authors wrote in the journal Proceedings of the Royal Society B. In non-dyslexic people, the cells are arranged asymmetrically, allowing signals from the one eye to be overridden by the other to create a single image in the brain. "Our observations lead us to believe that we indeed found a potential cause of dyslexia," study co-author Guy Ropars of the University of Rennes, told AFP. It offers a "relatively simple" method of diagnosis, he added, by simply looking into a subject's eyes. Furthermore, "the discovery of a delay (of about 10 thousandths of a second) between the primary image and the mirror image in the opposing hemispheres of the brain, allowed us to develop a method to erase the mirror image that is so confusing for dyslexic people" -- using an LED lamp.