If you are looking for an answer to the question What is Artificial Intelligence? and you only have a minute, then here's the definition the Association for the Advancement of Artificial Intelligence offers on its home page: "the scientific understanding of the mechanisms underlying thought and intelligent behavior and their embodiment in machines."
However, if you are fortunate enough to have more than a minute, then please get ready to embark upon an exciting journey exploring AI (but beware, it could last a lifetime) …
Wedge, the video interviewing solution that helps recruiters make authentic connections with candidates, announced its new partnership with Hiretual, the industry-leading AI-powered talent data system. Matt Baxter, CEO of Wedge, shared, "There's a natural synergy between Wedge and Hiretual – we're both on a mission to remove inefficiencies and enhance the recruiting function overall. That's why we're so excited Hiretual is the first major player to join Wedge's newly established partner program. Our work together is going to benefit clients in a big way." Steven Jiang, CEO of Hiretual, shared, "Hiretual can now provide customers with richer screening capabilities enhanced with video interview recordings through our partnership with Wedge. Wedge is changing how companies think about video interviewing, right when they need it most. Likewise, talent acquisition is evolving rapidly, and the partnership between Hiretual and Wedge will further support that transformation."
Many job descriptions across organizations will require at least some use of AI in the coming years, creating opportunities for the savvy to learn about AI and advance their careers regardless of discipline. New job titles have and will emerge to help the organization execute on AI strategy. Machine learning engineers have cemented a leading role on the AI team, for example, taking first place on best jobs listed on Indeed last year, according to a recent rapport in CIO. And AI specialists were the top job in LinkedIn's 2020 Emerging Jobs report, with 74% annual growth in the last four years. This was followed by robot engineer and data scientist.
In multi-step learning, where a final learning task is accomplished via a sequence of intermediate learning tasks, the intuition is that successive steps or levels transform the initial data into representations more and more suited" to the final learning task. A related principle arises in transfer-learning where Baxter (2000) proposed a theoretical framework to study how learning multiple tasks transforms the inductive bias of a learner. The most widespread multi-step learning approach is semi-supervised learning with two steps: unsupervised, then supervised. Several authors (Castelli-Cover, 1996; Balcan-Blum, 2005; Niyogi, 2008; Ben-David et al, 2008; Urner et al, 2011) have analyzed SSL, with Balcan-Blum (2005) proposing a version of the PAC learning framework augmented by a compatibility function" to link concept class and unlabeled data distribution. We propose to analyze SSL and other multi-step learning approaches, much in the spirit of Baxter's framework, by defining a learning problem generatively as a joint statistical model on $X \times Y$.
Scientists have created a robot that may be able to help the elderly perform tasks amid a shortage of nurses in the UK. Named Baxter, it has two arms and 3D printed'fingers', allowing it to step in when a person is struggling with things such as getting dressed. Artificial intelligence allows the robot to detect when assistance is needed and learn about the owners difficulties over time. When it's ready for use in healthcare settings, it could help free up the time of staff so they can do other work. There are around 40,000 nurse vacancies in NHS England, which is expected to double after Brexit, according to figures.
One of the essential phrases necessary to understand AI in 2019 has to be "ethics washing." Put simply, ethics washing -- also called "ethics theater" -- is the practice of fabricating or exaggerating a company's interest in equitable AI systems that work for everyone. A textbook example for tech giants is when a company promotes "AI for good" initiatives with one hand while selling surveillance capitalism tech to governments and corporate customers with the other. Accusations of ethics washing have been lobbed at the biggest AI companies in the world, as well as startups. The most high-profile example this year may have been Google's external AI ethics panel, which devolved into a PR nightmare and was disbanded after about a week.
Mobile maps route us through traffic, algorithms can now pilot automobiles, virtual assistants help us smoothly toggle between work and life, and smart code is adept at surfacing our next our new favorite song. But AI could prove dangerous, too. Tesla CEO Elon Musk once warned that biased, unmonitored and unregulated AI could be the "greatest risk we face as a civilization." Instead, AI experts are concerned that automated systems are likely to absorb bias from human programmers. And when bias is coded into the algorithms that power AI it will be nearly impossible to remove.
As artificial intelligence develops and disrupts more industries, more working professionals are becoming increasingly concerned about its implications for the future of work. According to a Pew Research Center survey completed in 2017, 72% of Americans fear AI technology is capable of replacing jobs, with 25% feeling exceptionally worried.1 The industries most at risk are predicted to be jobs within science, healthcare, security, farming, construction, transport, and banking.2 While it's speculated AI will take over 1.8 million human jobs by the year 2020,4 the technology is also expected to create a 2.3 million new kinds of jobs, many of which will involve the collaboration between humans and AI.5 Research shows artificial intelligence is capable of performing several tasks better than humans in specific occupations, but it's not capable of performing all tasks required for the job better than humans.6 In other words, most jobs will be affected by AI but in such a way that a partnership is formed between humans and machines, a more powerful alliance compared to either working individually.7 What will this look like?
After 15 years of diligently exploring the surface of Mars, the Opportunity rover finally succumbed to the elements and went offline Feb. 13. As obituaries and tributes to "Oppy" surfaced, fans caught a glimpse into the robot's final moments: the last picture it sent, its last words, the last-ditch attempts to revive it. Scientists wept as they said their final farewells. As employees swayed and embraced, mission control sent one final transmission to Oppy: Billie Holiday's 1944 recording of "I'll Be Seeing You." The muted, intimate timbre of Holiday's voice helped millions say goodbye to "the little robot who could": I'll find you in the morning sun, I'll be looking at the moon, But I'll be seeing you.
Video Friday is your weekly selection of awesome robotics videos, collected by your Automaton bloggers. We'll also be posting a weekly calendar of upcoming robotics events for the next few months; here's what we have so far (send us your events!): Let us know if you have suggestions for next week, and enjoy today's videos. Using machine-learning and sensory hardware, Alberto Rodriguez, assistant professor of mechanical engineering, and members of MIT's MCube lab have developed a robot that is learning how to play the game Jenga. The technology could be used in robots for manufacturing assembly lines.
In the wake of the closure of Apple's autonomous car division (Project Titan) this week, one questions if Steve Jobs' axiom still holds true. "Some people say, 'Give the customers what they want.' Our job is to figure out what they're going to want before they do," declared Jobs and continued with an analogy, "I think Henry Ford once said, 'If I'd asked customers what they wanted, they would have told me, 'a faster horse!'" Titan joins a growing graveyard of autonomous innovations, which is filled with the tombstones of Baxter, Jibo, Kuri and many broken quadcopters. If anything holds true, not every founder is Steve Jobs or Henry Ford and listening to public sentiment could be a bellwether for success. Adam Jonas of Morgan Stanley announced on January 9, 2019 from the Consumer Electronic Show (CES) floor, "It's official. It's the timing… the telemetry of adoption for L5 cars without safety drivers expected by many investors may be too aggressive by a decade… possibly decades."