Collaborating Authors

Graphics: Overviews

Intelli-Paint: Towards Developing Human-like Painting Agents Artificial Intelligence

The generation of well-designed artwork is often quite time-consuming and assumes a high degree of proficiency on part of the human painter. In order to facilitate the human painting process, substantial research efforts have been made on teaching machines how to "paint like a human", and then using the trained agent as a painting assistant tool for human users. However, current research in this direction is often reliant on a progressive grid-based division strategy wherein the agent divides the overall image into successively finer grids, and then proceeds to paint each of them in parallel. This inevitably leads to artificial painting sequences which are not easily intelligible to human users. To address this, we propose a novel painting approach which learns to generate output canvases while exhibiting a more human-like painting style. The proposed painting pipeline Intelli-Paint consists of 1) a progressive layering strategy which allows the agent to first paint a natural background scene representation before adding in each of the foreground objects in a progressive fashion. 2) We also introduce a novel sequential brushstroke guidance strategy which helps the painting agent to shift its attention between different image regions in a semantic-aware manner. 3) Finally, we propose a brushstroke regularization strategy which allows for ~60-80% reduction in the total number of required brushstrokes without any perceivable differences in the quality of the generated canvases. Through both quantitative and qualitative results, we show that the resulting agents not only show enhanced efficiency in output canvas generation but also exhibit a more natural-looking painting style which would better assist human users express their ideas through digital artwork.

Automatic Graphics Program Generation using Attention-Based Hierarchical Decoder Machine Learning

Recent progress on deep learning has made it possible to automatically transform the screenshot of Graphic User Interface (GUI) into code by using the encoder-decoder framework. While the commonly adopted image encoder (e.g., CNN network), might be capable of extracting image features to the desired level, interpreting these abstract image features into hundreds of tokens of code puts a particular challenge on the decoding power of the RNN-based code generator. Considering the code used for describing GUI is usually hierarchically structured, we propose a new attention-based hierarchical code generation model, which can describe GUI images in a finer level of details, while also being able to generate hierarchically structured code in consistency with the hierarchical layout of the graphic elements in the GUI. Our model follows the encoder-decoder framework, all the components of which can be trained jointly in an end-to-end manner. The experimental results show that our method outperforms other current state-of-the-art methods on both a publicly available GUI-code dataset as well as a dataset established by our own.

Can Computers Create Art? Artificial Intelligence

This essay discusses whether computers, using Artificial Intelligence (AI), could create art. First, the history of technologies that automated aspects of art is surveyed, including photography and animation. In each case, there were initial fears and denial of the technology, followed by a blossoming of new creative and professional opportunities for artists. The current hype and reality of Artificial Intelligence (AI) tools for art making is then discussed, together with predictions about how AI tools will be used. It is then speculated about whether it could ever happen that AI systems could be credited with authorship of artwork. It is theorized that art is something created by social agents, and so computers cannot be credited with authorship of art in our current understanding. A few ways that this could change are also hypothesized.