If you are looking for an answer to the question What is Artificial Intelligence? and you only have a minute, then here's the definition the Association for the Advancement of Artificial Intelligence offers on its home page: "the scientific understanding of the mechanisms underlying thought and intelligent behavior and their embodiment in machines."
However, if you are fortunate enough to have more than a minute, then please get ready to embark upon an exciting journey exploring AI (but beware, it could last a lifetime) …
Learning invariant representations is an important requirement when training machine learning models that are driven by spurious correlations in the datasets. These spurious correlations, between input samples and the target labels, wrongly direct the neural network predictions resulting in poor performance on certain groups, especially the minority groups. Robust training against these spurious correlations requires the knowledge of group membership for every sample. Such a requirement is impractical in situations where the data labeling efforts for minority or rare groups are significantly laborious or where the individuals comprising the dataset choose to conceal sensitive information. On the other hand, the presence of such data collection efforts results in datasets that contain partially labeled group information. Recent works have tackled the fully unsupervised scenario where no labels for groups are available. Thus, we aim to fill the missing gap in the literature by tackling a more realistic setting that can leverage partially available sensitive or group information during training. First, we construct a constraint set and derive a high probability bound for the group assignment to belong to the set. Second, we propose an algorithm that optimizes for the worst-off group assignments from the constraint set. Through experiments on image and tabular datasets, we show improvements in the minority group's performance while preserving overall aggregate accuracy across groups.
We propose a novel training method to integrate rules into deep learning, in a way their strengths are controllable at inference. Deep Neural Networks with Controllable Rule Representations (DeepCTRL) incorporates a rule encoder into the model coupled with a rule-based objective, enabling a shared representation for decision making. DeepCTRL is agnostic to data type and model architecture. It can be applied to any kind of rule defined for inputs and outputs. The key aspect of DeepCTRL is that it does not require retraining to adapt the rule strength -- at inference, the user can adjust it based on the desired operation point on accuracy vs. rule verification ratio. In real-world domains where incorporating rules is critical -- such as Physics, Retail and Healthcare -- we show the effectiveness of DeepCTRL in teaching rules for deep learning. DeepCTRL improves the trust and reliability of the trained models by significantly increasing their rule verification ratio, while also providing accuracy gains at downstream tasks. Additionally, DeepCTRL enables novel use cases such as hypothesis testing of the rules on data samples, and unsupervised adaptation based on shared rules between datasets.
We extend semi-supervised learning to the problem of domain adaptation to learn significantly higher-accuracy models that train on one data distribution and test on a different one. With the goal of generality, we introduce AdaMatch, a method that unifies the tasks of unsupervised domain adaptation (UDA), semi-supervised learning (SSL), and semi-supervised domain adaptation (SSDA). In an extensive experimental study, we compare its behavior with respective state-of-the-art techniques from SSL, SSDA, and UDA on vision classification tasks. We find AdaMatch either matches or significantly exceeds the state-of-the-art in each case using the same hyper-parameters regardless of the dataset or task. For example, AdaMatch nearly doubles the accuracy compared to that of the prior state-of-the-art on the UDA task for DomainNet and even exceeds the accuracy of the prior state-of-the-art obtained with pre-training by 6.4% when AdaMatch is trained completely from scratch. Furthermore, by providing AdaMatch with just one labeled example per class from the target domain (i.e., the SSDA setting), we increase the target accuracy by an additional 6.1%, and with 5 labeled examples, by 13.6%.
Contrastive representation learning has shown to be an effective way of learning representations from unlabeled data. However, much progress has been made in vision domains relying on data augmentations carefully designed using domain knowledge. In this work, we propose i-Mix, a simple yet effective regularization strategy for improving contrastive representation learning in both vision and non-vision domains. We cast contrastive learning as training a non-parametric classifier by assigning a unique virtual class to each data in a batch. Then, data instances are mixed in both the input and virtual label spaces, providing more augmented data during training. In experiments, we demonstrate that i-Mix consistently improves the quality of self-supervised representations across domains, resulting in significant performance gains on downstream tasks. Furthermore, we confirm its regularization effect via extensive ablation studies across model and dataset sizes.
Supervised deep learning has been successfully applied for many recognition problems in machine learning and computer vision. Although it can approximate a complex many-to-one function very well when large number of training data is provided, the lack of probabilistic inference of the current supervised deep learning methods makes it difficult to model a complex structured output representations. In this work, we develop a scalable deep conditional generative model for structured output variables using Gaussian latent variables. The model is trained efficiently in the framework of stochastic gradient variational Bayes, and allows a fast prediction using stochastic feed-forward inference. In addition, we provide novel strategies to build a robust structured prediction algorithms, such as recurrent prediction network architecture, input noise-injection and multi-scale prediction training methods.
Deep metric learning has gained much popularity in recent years, following the success of deep learning. However, existing frameworks of deep metric learning based on contrastive loss and triplet loss often suffer from slow convergence, partially because they employ only one negative example while not interacting with the other negative classes in each update. In this paper, we propose to address this problem with a new metric learning objective called multi-class N-pair loss. The proposed objective function firstly generalizes triplet loss by allowing joint comparison among more than one negative examples – more specifically, N-1 negative examples – and secondly reduces the computational burden of evaluating deep embedding vectors via an efficient batch construction strategy using only N pairs of examples, instead of (N 1) N. We demonstrate the superiority of our proposed loss to the triplet loss as well as other competing loss functions for a variety of tasks on several visual recognition benchmark, including fine-grained object recognition and verification, image clustering and retrieval, and face verification and identification. Papers published at the Neural Information Processing Systems Conference.
Deep learning has been successfully applied to multimodal representation learning problems, with a common strategy to learning joint representations that are shared across multiple modalities on top of layers of modality-specific networks. Nonetheless, there still remains a question how to learn a good association between data modalities; in particular, a good generative model of multimodal data should be able to reason about missing data modality given the rest of data modalities. In this paper, we propose a novel multimodal representation learning framework that explicitly aims this goal. Rather than learning with maximum likelihood, we train the model to minimize the variation of information. We provide a theoretical insight why the proposed learning objective is sufficient to estimate the data-generating joint distribution of multimodal data.
Semi-supervised learning (SSL) provides an effective means of leveraging unlabeled data to improve a model's performance. In this paper, we demonstrate the power of a simple combination of two common SSL methods: consistency regularization and pseudo-labeling. Our algorithm, FixMatch, first generates pseudo-labels using the model's predictions on weakly-augmented unlabeled images. For a given image, the pseudo-label is only retained if the model produces a high-confidence prediction. The model is then trained to predict the pseudo-label when fed a strongly-augmented version of the same image. Despite its simplicity, we show that FixMatch achieves state-of-the-art performance across a variety of standard semi-supervised learning benchmarks, including 94.93% accuracy on CIFAR-10 with 250 labels and 88.61% accuracy with 40 -- just 4 labels per class. Since FixMatch bears many similarities to existing SSL methods that achieve worse performance, we carry out an extensive ablation study to tease apart the experimental factors that are most important to FixMatch's success. We make our code available at https://github.com/google-research/fixmatch.
A BSTRACT We improve the recently-proposed "MixMatch" semi-supervised learning algorithm by introducing two new techniques: distribution alignment and augmentation anchoring. Distribution alignment encourages the marginal distribution of predictions on unlabeled data to be close to the marginal distribution of ground-truth labels. Augmentation anchoring feeds multiple strongly augmented versions of an input into the model and encourages each output to be close to the prediction for a weakly-augmented version of the same input. To produce strong augmentations, we propose a variant of AutoAugment which learns the augmentation policy while the model is being trained. Our new algorithm, dubbed ReMix-Match, is significantly more data-efficient than prior work, requiring between 5 and 16 less data to reach the same accuracy. For example, on CIFAR-10 with 250 labeled examples we reach 93 .73% This can enable the use of large, powerful models when labeling data is expensive or inconvenient. Research on SSL has produced a diverse collection of approaches, including consistency regularization (Sajjadi et al., 2016; Laine & Aila, 2017) which encourages a model to produce the same prediction when the input is perturbed and entropy minimization (Grandvalet & Bengio, 2005) which encourages the model to output high-confidence predictions. The recently proposed "MixMatch" algorithm (Berthelot et al., 2019) combines these techniques in a unified loss function and achieves strong performance on a variety of image classification benchmarks.
Deep Residual Networks (ResNets) have recently achieved state-of-the-art results on many challenging computer vision tasks. In this work we analyze the role of Batch Normalization (BatchNorm) layers on ResNets in the hope of improving the current architecture and better incorporating other normalization techniques, such as Normalization Propagation (NormProp), into ResNets. Firstly, we verify that BatchNorm helps distribute representation learning to residual blocks at all layers, as opposed to a plain ResNet without BatchNorm where learning happens mostly in the latter part of the network. We also observe that BatchNorm well regularizes Concatenated ReLU (CReLU) activation scheme on ResNets, whose magnitude of activation grows by preserving both positive and negative responses when going deeper into the network. Secondly, we investigate the use of NormProp as a replacement for BatchNorm in ResNets. Though NormProp theoretically attains the same effect as BatchNorm on generic convolutional neural networks, the identity mapping of ResNets invalidates its theoretical promise and NormProp exhibits a significant performance drop when naively applied. To bridge the gap between BatchNorm and NormProp in ResNets, we propose a simple modification to NormProp and employ the CReLU activation scheme. We experiment on visual object recognition benchmark datasets such as CIFAR-10/100 and ImageNet and demonstrate that 1) the modified NormProp performs better than the original NormProp but is still not comparable to BatchNorm and 2) CReLU improves the performance of ResNets with or without normalizations.