Collaborating Authors

Sethi, Abhishek

Controlled Text Generation for Data Augmentation in Intelligent Artificial Agents Machine Learning

Data availability is a bottleneck during early stages of development of new capabilities for intelligent artificial agents. We investigate the use of text generation techniques to augment the training data of a popular commercial artificial agent across categories of functionality, with the goal of faster development of new functionality. We explore a variety of encoder-decoder generative models for synthetic training data generation and propose using conditional variational auto-encoders. Our approach requires only direct optimization, works well with limited data and significantly outperforms the previous controlled text generation techniques. Further, the generated data are used as additional training samples in an extrinsic intent classification task, leading to improved performance by up to 5\% absolute f-score in low-resource cases, validating the usefulness of our approach.

MultiWOZ 2.1: Multi-Domain Dialogue State Corrections and State Tracking Baselines Artificial Intelligence

MultiWOZ is a recently-released multidomain dialogue dataset spanning 7 distinct domains and containing over 10000 dialogues, one of the largest resources of its kind to-date. Though an immensely useful resource, while building different classes of dialogue state tracking models using MultiWOZ, we detected substantial errors in the state annotations and dialogue utterances which negatively impacted the performance of our models. In order to alleviate this problem, we use crowdsourced workers to fix the state annotations and utterances in the original version of the data. Our correction process results in changes to over 32% of state annotations across 40% of the dialogue turns. In addition, we fix 146 dialogue utterances throughout the dataset focusing in particular on addressing slot value errors represented within the conversations. We then benchmark a number of state-of-the-art dialogue state tracking models on this new MultiWOZ 2.1 dataset and show joint state tracking performance on the corrected state annotations. We are publicly releasing MultiWOZ 2.1 to the community, hoping that this dataset resource will allow for more effective dialogue state tracking models to be built in the future.

Parsing Coordination for Spoken Language Understanding Machine Learning

ABSTRACT Typical spoken language understanding systems provide narrow semantic parses using a domain-specific ontology. The parses contain intents and slots that are directly consumed by downstream domain applications. In this work we discuss expanding such systems to handle compound entities and intents by introducing a domain-agnostic shallow parser that handles linguistic coordination. We show that our model for parsing coordination learns domain-independent and slot-independent features and is able to segment conjunct boundaries of many different phrasal categories. We also show that using adversarial training can be effective for improving generalization across different slot types for coordination parsing. Index Terms-- spoken language understanding, chunking, coordination 1. INTRODUCTION A typical spoken language understanding (SLU) system maps user utterances to domain-specific semantic representations that can be factored into an intent and slots [1, 2]. For example, an utterance, "what is the weather like in boston" has one intent WeatherInfo and one slot type CityName whose value is "boston." Thus, parsing for such systems is often factored into two separate tasks: intent classification and entity recognition whose results are consumed by downstream domain applications.