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Metaxas, Dimitris


Training Federated GANs with Theoretical Guarantees: A Universal Aggregation Approach

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

Recently, Generative Adversarial Networks (GANs) have demonstrated their potential in federated learning, i.e., learning a centralized model from data privately hosted by multiple sites. A federatedGAN jointly trains a centralized generator and multiple private discriminators hosted at different sites. A major theoretical challenge for the federated GAN is the heterogeneity of the local data distributions. Traditional approaches cannot guarantee to learn the target distribution, which isa mixture of the highly different local distributions. This paper tackles this theoretical challenge, and for the first time, provides a provably correct framework for federated GAN. We propose a new approach called Universal Aggregation, which simulates a centralized discriminator via carefully aggregating the mixture of all private discriminators. We prove that a generator trained with this simulated centralized discriminator can learn the desired target distribution. Through synthetic and real datasets, we show that our method can learn the mixture of largely different distributions where existing federated GAN methods fail.


Rethinking Kernel Methods for Node Representation Learning on Graphs

Neural Information Processing Systems

Graph kernels are kernel methods measuring graph similarity and serve as a standard tool for graph classification. However, the use of kernel methods for node classification, which is a related problem to graph representation learning, is still ill-posed and the state-of-the-art methods are heavily based on heuristics. Here, we present a novel theoretical kernel-based framework for node classification that can bridge the gap between these two representation learning problems on graphs. Our approach is motivated by graph kernel methodology but extended to learn the node representations capturing the structural information in a graph. We theoretically show that our formulation is as powerful as any positive semidefinite kernels.


Mode Estimation for High Dimensional Discrete Tree Graphical Models

Neural Information Processing Systems

This paper studies the following problem: given samples from a high dimensional discrete distribution, we want to estimate the leading $(\delta,\rho)$-modes of the underlying distributions. A point is defined to be a $(\delta,\rho)$-mode if it is a local optimum of the density within a $\delta$-neighborhood under metric $\rho$. As we increase the scale'' parameter $\delta$, the neighborhood size increases and the total number of modes monotonically decreases. The sequence of the $(\delta,\rho)$-modes reveal intrinsic topographical information of the underlying distributions. Though the mode finding problem is generally intractable in high dimensions, this paper unveils that, if the distribution can be approximated well by a tree graphical model, mode characterization is significantly easier.


Unsupervised Domain Adaptation via Calibrating Uncertainties

arXiv.org Machine Learning

Unsupervised domain adaptation (UDA) aims at inferring class labels for unlabeled target domain given a related labeled source dataset. Intuitively, a model trained on source domain normally produces higher uncertainties for unseen data. In this work, we build on this assumption and propose to adapt from source to target domain via calibrating their predictive uncertainties. The uncertainty is quantified as the Renyi entropy, from which we propose a general Renyi entropy regularization (RER) framework. We further employ variational Bayes learning for reliable uncertainty estimation. In addition, calibrating the sample variance of network parameters serves as a plug-in regularizer for training. We discuss the theoretical properties of the proposed method and demonstrate its effectiveness on three domain-adaptation tasks.


Self-Attention Generative Adversarial Networks

arXiv.org Machine Learning

In this paper, we propose the Self-Attention Generative Adversarial Network (SAGAN) which allows attention-driven, long-range dependency modeling for image generation tasks. Traditional convolutional GANs generate high-resolution details as a function of only spatially local points in lower-resolution feature maps. In SAGAN, details can be generated using cues from all feature locations. Moreover, the discriminator can check that highly detailed features in distant portions of the image are consistent with each other. Furthermore, recent work has shown that generator conditioning affects GAN performance. Leveraging this insight, we apply spectral normalization to the GAN generator and find that this improves training dynamics. The proposed SAGAN achieves the state-of-the-art results, boosting the best published Inception score from 36.8 to 52.52 and reducing Frechet Inception distance from 27.62 to 18.65 on the challenging ImageNet dataset. Visualization of the attention layers shows that the generator leverages neighborhoods that correspond to object shapes rather than local regions of fixed shape.


Improving GANs Using Optimal Transport

arXiv.org Machine Learning

We present Optimal Transport GAN (OT-GAN), a variant of generative adversarial nets minimizing a new metric measuring the distance between the generator distribution and the data distribution. This metric, which we call mini-batch energy distance, combines optimal transport in primal form with an energy distance defined in an adversarially learned feature space, resulting in a highly discriminative distance function with unbiased mini-batch gradients. Experimentally we show OT-GAN to be highly stable when trained with large mini-batches, and we present state-of-the-art results on several popular benchmark problems for image generation.


StackGAN++: Realistic Image Synthesis with Stacked Generative Adversarial Networks

arXiv.org Machine Learning

Although Generative Adversarial Networks (GANs) have shown remarkable success in various tasks, they still face challenges in generating high quality images. In this paper, we propose Stacked Generative Adversarial Networks (StackGAN) aiming at generating high-resolution photo-realistic images. First, we propose a two-stage generative adversarial network architecture, StackGAN-v1, for text-to-image synthesis. The Stage-I GAN sketches the primitive shape and colors of the object based on given text description, yielding low-resolution images. The Stage-II GAN takes Stage-I results and text descriptions as inputs, and generates high-resolution images with photo-realistic details. Second, an advanced multi-stage generative adversarial network architecture, StackGAN-v2, is proposed for both conditional and unconditional generative tasks. Our StackGAN-v2 consists of multiple generators and discriminators in a tree-like structure; images at multiple scales corresponding to the same scene are generated from different branches of the tree. StackGAN-v2 shows more stable training behavior than StackGAN-v1 by jointly approximating multiple distributions. Extensive experiments demonstrate that the proposed stacked generative adversarial networks significantly outperform other state-of-the-art methods in generating photo-realistic images.


StackGAN: Text to Photo-realistic Image Synthesis with Stacked Generative Adversarial Networks

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

Synthesizing high-quality images from text descriptions is a challenging problem in computer vision and has many practical applications. Samples generated by existing text-to-image approaches can roughly reflect the meaning of the given descriptions, but they fail to contain necessary details and vivid object parts. In this paper, we propose Stacked Generative Adversarial Networks (StackGAN) to generate 256x256 photo-realistic images conditioned on text descriptions. We decompose the hard problem into more manageable sub-problems through a sketch-refinement process. The Stage-I GAN sketches the primitive shape and colors of the object based on the given text description, yielding Stage-I low-resolution images. The Stage-II GAN takes Stage-I results and text descriptions as inputs, and generates high-resolution images with photo-realistic details. It is able to rectify defects in Stage-I results and add compelling details with the refinement process. To improve the diversity of the synthesized images and stabilize the training of the conditional-GAN, we introduce a novel Conditioning Augmentation technique that encourages smoothness in the latent conditioning manifold. Extensive experiments and comparisons with state-of-the-arts on benchmark datasets demonstrate that the proposed method achieves significant improvements on generating photo-realistic images conditioned on text descriptions.


Mode Estimation for High Dimensional Discrete Tree Graphical Models

Neural Information Processing Systems

This paper studies the following problem: given samples from a high dimensional discrete distribution, we want to estimate the leading $(\delta,\rho)$-modes of the underlying distributions. A point is defined to be a $(\delta,\rho)$-mode if it is a local optimum of the density within a $\delta$-neighborhood under metric $\rho$. As we increase the ``scale'' parameter $\delta$, the neighborhood size increases and the total number of modes monotonically decreases. The sequence of the $(\delta,\rho)$-modes reveal intrinsic topographical information of the underlying distributions. Though the mode finding problem is generally intractable in high dimensions, this paper unveils that, if the distribution can be approximated well by a tree graphical model, mode characterization is significantly easier. An efficient algorithm with provable theoretical guarantees is proposed and is applied to applications like data analysis and multiple predictions.


Conditional Visual Tracking in Kernel Space

Neural Information Processing Systems

We present a conditional temporal probabilistic framework for reconstructing 3D human motion in monocular video based on descriptors encoding image silhouette observations. For computational efficiency we restrict visual inference to low-dimensional kernel induced nonlinear state spaces. Our methodology (kBME) combines kernel PCA-based nonlinear dimensionality reduction (kPCA) and Conditional Bayesian Mixture of Experts (BME) in order to learn complex multivalued predictors between observations and model hidden states. This is necessary for accurate, inverse, visual perception inferences, where several probable, distant 3D solutions exist due to noise or the uncertainty of monocular perspective projection. Low-dimensional models are appropriate because many visual processes exhibit strong nonlinear correlations in both the image observations and the target, hidden state variables. The learned predictors are temporally combined within a conditional graphical model in order to allow a principled propagation of uncertainty. We study several predictors and empirically show that the proposed algorithm positively compares with techniques based on regression, Kernel Dependency Estimation (KDE) or PCA alone, and gives results competitive to those of high-dimensional mixture predictors at a fraction of their computational cost. We show that the method successfully reconstructs the complex 3D motion of humans in real monocular video sequences.