If you are looking for an answer to the question What is Artificial Intelligence? and you only have a minute, then here's the definition the Association for the Advancement of Artificial Intelligence offers on its home page: "the scientific understanding of the mechanisms underlying thought and intelligent behavior and their embodiment in machines."
However, if you are fortunate enough to have more than a minute, then please get ready to embark upon an exciting journey exploring AI (but beware, it could last a lifetime) …
Lalitha, Anusha, Goldsmith, Andrea
We study a decentralized cooperative multi-agent multi-armed bandit problem with $K$ arms and $N$ agents connected over a network. In our model, each arm's reward distribution is same for all agents, and rewards are drawn independently across agents and over time steps. In each round, agents choose an arm to play and subsequently send a message to their neighbors. The goal is to minimize cumulative regret averaged over the entire network. We propose a decentralized Bayesian multi-armed bandit framework that extends single-agent Bayesian bandit algorithms to the decentralized setting. Specifically, we study an information assimilation algorithm that can be combined with existing Bayesian algorithms, and using this, we propose a decentralized Thompson Sampling algorithm and decentralized Bayes-UCB algorithm. We analyze the decentralized Thompson Sampling algorithm under Bernoulli rewards and establish a problem-dependent upper bound on the cumulative regret. We show that regret incurred scales logarithmically over the time horizon with constants that match those of an optimal centralized agent with access to all observations across the network. Our analysis also characterizes the cumulative regret in terms of the network structure. Through extensive numerical studies, we show that our extensions of Thompson Sampling and Bayes-UCB incur lesser cumulative regret than the state-of-art algorithms inspired by the Upper Confidence Bound algorithm. We implement our proposed decentralized Thompson Sampling under gossip protocol, and over time-varying networks, where each communication link has a fixed probability of failure.
We propose a decentralized learning algorithm over a general social network. The algorithm leaves the training data distributed on the mobile devices while utilizing a peer to peer model aggregation method. The proposed algorithm allows agents with local data to learn a shared model explaining the global training data in a decentralized fashion. The proposed algorithm can be viewed as a Bayesian and peer-to-peer variant of federated learning in which each agent keeps a "posterior probability distribution" over a global model parameters. The agent update its "posterior" based on 1) the local training data and 2) the asynchronous communication and model aggregation with their 1-hop neighbors. This Bayesian formulation allows for a systematic treatment of model aggregation over any arbitrary connected graph. Furthermore, it provides strong analytic guarantees on converge in the realizable case as well as a closed form characterization of the rate of convergence. We also show that our methodology can be combined with efficient Bayesian inference techniques to train Bayesian neural networks in a decentralized manner. By empirical studies we show that our theoretical analysis can guide the design of network/social interactions and data partitioning to achieve convergence.
We consider the problem of training a machine learning model over a network of nodes in a fully decentralized framework. The nodes take a Bayesian-like approach via the introduction of a belief over the model parameter space. We propose a distributed learning algorithm in which nodes update their belief by aggregate information from their one-hop neighbors to learn a model that best fits the observations over the entire network. In addition, we also obtain sufficient conditions to ensure that the probability of error is small for every node in the network. We discuss approximations required for applying this algorithm to train Deep Neural Networks (DNNs). Experiments on training linear regression model and on training a DNN show that the proposed learning rule algorithm provides a significant improvement in the accuracy compared to the case where nodes learn without cooperation.