If you are looking for an answer to the question What is Artificial Intelligence? and you only have a minute, then here's the definition the Association for the Advancement of Artificial Intelligence offers on its home page: "the scientific understanding of the mechanisms underlying thought and intelligent behavior and their embodiment in machines."
However, if you are fortunate enough to have more than a minute, then please get ready to embark upon an exciting journey exploring AI (but beware, it could last a lifetime) …
In this article, we give an overview of the answer set programming paradigm, explain its strengths, and illustrate its main features in terms of examples and an application problem. In this article, we give an overview of the answer set programming paradigm, explain its strengths, and illustrate its main features in terms of examples and an application problem.
The supertree construction problem is about combining several phylogenetic trees with possibly conflicting information into a single tree that has all the leaves of the source trees as its leaves and the relationships between the leaves are as consistent with the source trees as possible. This leads to an optimization problem that is computationally challenging and typically heuristic methods, such as matrix representation with parsimony (MRP), are used. In this paper we consider the use of answer set programming to solve the supertree construction problem in terms of two alternative encodings. The first is based on an existing encoding of trees using substructures known as quartets, while the other novel encoding captures the relationships present in trees through direct projections. We use these encodings to compute a genus-level supertree for the family of cats (Felidae). Furthermore, we compare our results to recent supertrees obtained by the MRP method.
Many knowledge representation tasks involve trees or similar structures as abstract datatypes. However, devising compact and efficient declarative representations of such properties is non-obvious and can be challenging indeed. In this paper, we take acyclicity properties into consideration and investigate logic-based approaches to encode them. We use answer set programming as the primary representation language but also consider mappings to related formalisms, such as propositional logic, difference logic, and linear programming.
Practically all programming languages allow the programmer to split a program into several modules which brings along several advantages in software development. In this paper, we are interested in the area of answer-set programming where fully declarative and nonmonotonic languages are applied. In this context, obtaining a modular structure for programs is by no means straightforward since the output of an entire program cannot in general be composed from the output of its components. To better understand the effects of disjunctive information on modularity we restrict the scope of analysis to the case of disjunctive logic programs (DLPs) subject to stable-model semantics. We define the notion of a DLP-function, where a well-defined input/output interface is provided, and establish a novel module theorem which indicates the compositionality of stable-model semantics for DLP-functions. The module theorem extends the well-known splitting-set theorem and enables the decomposition of DLP-functions given their strongly connected components based on positive dependencies induced by rules. In this setting, it is also possible to split shared disjunctive rules among components using a generalized shifting technique. The concept of modular equivalence is introduced for the mutual comparison of DLP-functions using a generalization of a translation-based verification method.
Oikarinen, Emilia, Janhunen, Tomi
In this paper, a Gaifman-Shapiro-style module architecture is tailored to the case of Smodels programs under the stable model semantics. The composition of Smodels program modules is suitably limited by module conditions which ensure the compatibility of the module system with stable models. Hence the semantics of an entire Smodels program depends directly on stable models assigned to its modules. This result is formalized as a module theorem which truly strengthens Lifschitz and Turner's splitting-set theorem for the class of Smodels programs. To streamline generalizations in the future, the module theorem is first proved for normal programs and then extended to cover Smodels programs using a translation from the latter class of programs to the former class. Moreover, the respective notion of module-level equivalence, namely modular equivalence, is shown to be a proper congruence relation: it is preserved under substitutions of modules that are modularly equivalent. Principles for program decomposition are also addressed. The strongly connected components of the respective dependency graph can be exploited in order to extract a module structure when there is no explicit a priori knowledge about the modules of a program. The paper includes a practical demonstration of tools that have been developed for automated (de)composition of Smodels programs. To appear in Theory and Practice of Logic Programming.