If you are looking for an answer to the question What is Artificial Intelligence? and you only have a minute, then here's the definition the Association for the Advancement of Artificial Intelligence offers on its home page: "the scientific understanding of the mechanisms underlying thought and intelligent behavior and their embodiment in machines."
However, if you are fortunate enough to have more than a minute, then please get ready to embark upon an exciting journey exploring AI (but beware, it could last a lifetime) …
He, Youbiao, Bao, Forrest Sheng
Circuit routing is a fundamental problem in designing electronic systems such as integrated circuits (ICs) and printed circuit boards (PCBs) which form the hardware of electronics and computers. Like finding paths between pairs of locations, circuit routing generates traces of wires to connect contacts or leads of circuit components. It is challenging because finding paths between dense and massive electronic components involves a very large search space. Existing solutions are either manually designed with domain knowledge or tailored to specific design rules, hence, difficult to adapt to new problems or design needs. Therefore, a general routing approach is highly desired. In this paper, we model the circuit routing as a sequential decision-making problem, and solve it by Monte Carlo tree search (MCTS) with deep neural network (DNN) guided rollout. It could be easily extended to routing cases with more routing constraints and optimization goals. Experiments on randomly generated single-layer circuits show the potential to route complex circuits. The proposed approach can solve the problems that benchmark methods such as sequential A* method and Lee's algorithm cannot solve, and can also outperform the vanilla MCTS approach.
The COVID-19 is sweeping the world with deadly consequences. Its contagious nature and clinical similarity to other pneumonias make separating subjects contracted with COVID-19 and non-COVID-19 viral pneumonia a priority and a challenge. However, COVID-19 testing has been greatly limited by the availability and cost of existing methods, even in developed countries like the US. Intrigued by the wide availability of routine blood tests, we propose to leverage them for COVID-19 testing using the power of machine learning. Two proven-robust machine learning model families, random forests (RFs) and support vector machines (SVMs), are employed to tackle the challenge. Trained on blood data from 208 moderate COVID-19 subjects and 86 subjects with non-COVID-19 moderate viral pneumonia, the best result is obtained in an SVM-based classifier with an accuracy of 84%, a sensitivity of 88%, a specificity of 80%, and a precision of 92%. The results are found explainable from both machine learning and medical perspectives. A privacy-protected web portal is set up to help medical personnel in their practice and the trained models are released for developers to further build other applications. We hope our results can help the world fight this pandemic and welcome clinical verification of our approach on larger populations.
We present RLScheduler, a deep reinforcement learning based job scheduler for scheduling independent batch jobs in high-performance computing (HPC) environment. From knowing nothing about scheduling at beginning, RLScheduler is able to autonomously learn how to effectively schedule HPC batch jobs, targeting a given optimization goal. This is achieved by deep reinforcement learning with the help of specially designed neural network structures and various optimizations to stabilize and accelerate the learning. Our results show that RLScheduler can outperform existing heuristic scheduling algorithms, including a manually fine-tuned machine learning-based scheduler on the same workload. More importantly, we show that RLScheduler does not blindly over-fit the given workload to achieve such optimization, instead, it learns general rules for scheduling batch jobs which can be further applied to different workloads and systems to achieve similarly optimized performance. We also demonstrate that RLScheduler is capable of adjusting itself along with changing goals and workloads, making it an attractive solution for the future autonomous HPC management.