If you are looking for an answer to the question What is Artificial Intelligence? and you only have a minute, then here's the definition the Association for the Advancement of Artificial Intelligence offers on its home page: "the scientific understanding of the mechanisms underlying thought and intelligent behavior and their embodiment in machines."
However, if you are fortunate enough to have more than a minute, then please get ready to embark upon an exciting journey exploring AI (but beware, it could last a lifetime) …
Rehearsal, seeking to remind the model by storing old knowledge in lifelong learning, is one of the most effective ways to mitigate catastrophic forgetting, i.e., biased forgetting of previous knowledge when moving to new tasks. However, the old tasks of the most previous rehearsal-based methods suffer from the unpredictable domain shift when training the new task. This is because these methods always ignore two significant factors. First, the Data Imbalance between the new task and old tasks that makes the domain of old tasks prone to shift. Second, the Task Isolation among all tasks will make the domain shift toward unpredictable directions; To address the unpredictable domain shift, in this paper, we propose Multi-Domain Multi-Task (MDMT) rehearsal to train the old tasks and new task parallelly and equally to break the isolation among tasks. Specifically, a two-level angular margin loss is proposed to encourage the intra-class/task compactness and inter-class/task discrepancy, which keeps the model from domain chaos. In addition, to further address domain shift of the old tasks, we propose an optional episodic distillation loss on the memory to anchor the knowledge for each old task. Experiments on benchmark datasets validate the proposed approach can effectively mitigate the unpredictable domain shift.
We propose Dynamically Pruned Message Passing Networks (DPMPN) for large-scale knowledge graph reasoning. In contrast to existing models, embedding-based or path-based, we learn an input-dependent subgraph to explicitly model a sequential reasoning process. Each subgraph is dynamically constructed, expanding itself selectively under a flow-style attention mechanism. In this way, we can not only construct graphical explanations to interpret prediction, but also prune message passing in Graph Neural Networks (GNNs) to scale with the size of graphs. We take the inspiration from the consciousness prior proposed by Bengio to design a two-GNN framework to encode global input-invariant graph-structured representation and learn local input-dependent one coordinated by an attention module. Experiments show the reasoning capability in our model that is providing a clear graphical explanation as well as predicting results accurately, outperforming most state-of-the-art methods in knowledge base completion tasks.
The ability of reasoning beyond data fitting is substantial to deep learning systems in order to make a leap forward towards artificial general intelligence. A lot of efforts have been made to model neural-based reasoning as an iterative decision-making process based on recurrent networks and reinforcement learning. Instead, inspired by the consciousness prior proposed by Yoshua Bengio, we explore reasoning with the notion of attentive awareness from a cognitive perspective, and formulate it in the form of attentive message passing on graphs, called neural consciousness flow (NeuCFlow). Aiming to bridge the gap between deep learning systems and reasoning, we propose an attentive computation framework with a three-layer architecture, which consists of an unconsciousness flow layer, a consciousness flow layer, and an attention flow layer. We implement the NeuCFlow model with graph neural networks (GNNs) and conditional transition matrices. Our attentive computation greatly reduces the complexity of vanilla GNN-based methods, capable of running on large-scale graphs. We validate our model for knowledge graph reasoning by solving a series of knowledge base completion (KBC) tasks. The experimental results show NeuCFlow significantly outperforms previous state-of-the-art KBC methods, including the embedding-based and the path-based. The reproducible code can be found by the link below.
Real-world scenarios demand reasoning about process, more than final outcome prediction, to discover latent causal chains and better understand complex systems. It requires the learning algorithms to offer both accurate predictions and clear interpretations. We design a set of trajectory reasoning tasks on graphs with only the source and the destination observed. We present the attention flow mechanism to explicitly model the reasoning process, leveraging the relational inductive biases by basing our models on graph networks. We study the way attention flow can effectively act on the underlying information flow implemented by message passing. Experiments demonstrate that the attention flow driven by and interacting with graph networks can provide higher accuracy in prediction and better interpretation for trajectories reasoning.
Yu, Hongkai (University of South Carolina) | Zheng, Kang (University of South Carolina) | Fang, Jianwu (Xi'an Jiaotong University) | Guo, Hao (Chang'an University) | Feng, Wei (University of South Carolina) | Wang, Song (Tianjin University)
Recently, saliency detection in a single image and co-saliency detection in multiple images have drawn extensive research interest in the vision community. In this paper, we investigate a new problem of co-saliency detection within a single image, i.e., detecting within-image co-saliency. By identifying common saliency within an image, e.g., highlighting multiple occurrences of an object class with similar appearance, this work can benefit many important applications, such as the detection of objects of interest, more robust object recognition, reduction of information redundancy, and animation synthesis. We propose a new bottom-up method to address this problem. Specifically, a large number of object proposals are first detected from the image. Then we develop an optimization algorithm to derive a set of proposal groups, each of which contains multiple proposals showing good common saliency in the original image. For each proposal group, we calculate a co-saliency map and then use a low-rank based algorithm to fuse the maps calculated from all the proposal groups for the final co-saliency map in the image. In the experiment, we collect a new dataset of 364 color images with within-image cosaliency. Experiment results show that the proposed method can better detect the within-image co-saliency than existing algorithms.
This paper studies the topic modeling problem of tagged documents and images. Higher-order relations among tagged documents and images are major and ubiquitous characteristics, and play positive roles in extracting reliable and interpretable topics. In this paper, we propose the tag-topic models (TTM) to depict such higher-order topic structural dependencies within the Markov random field (MRF) framework. First, we use the novel factor graph representation of latent Dirichlet allocation (LDA)-based topic models from the MRF perspective, and present an efficient loopy belief propagation (BP) algorithm for approximate inference and parameter estimation. Second, we propose the factor hypergraph representation of TTM, and focus on both pairwise and higher-order relation modeling among tagged documents and images. Efficient loopy BP algorithm is developed to learn TTM, which encourages the topic labeling smoothness among tagged documents and images. Extensive experimental results confirm the incorporation of higher-order relations to be effective in enhancing the overall topic modeling performance, when compared with current state-of-the-art topic models, in many text and image mining tasks of broad interests such as word and link prediction, document classification, and tag recommendation.