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Farnadi, Golnoosh


User Profiling Using Hinge-loss Markov Random Fields

arXiv.org Machine Learning

A variety of approaches have been proposed to automatically infer the profiles of users from their digital footprint in social media. Most of the proposed approaches focus on mining a single type of information, while ignoring other sources of available user-generated content (UGC). In this paper, we propose a mechanism to infer a variety of user characteristics, such as, age, gender and personality traits, which can then be compiled into a user profile. To this end, we model social media users by incorporating and reasoning over multiple sources of UGC as well as social relations. Our model is based on a statistical relational learning framework using Hinge-loss Markov Random Fields (HL-MRFs), a class of probabilistic graphical models that can be defined using a set of first-order logical rules. We validate our approach on data from Facebook with more than 5k users and almost 725k relations. We show how HL-MRFs can be used to develop a generic and extensible user profiling framework by leveraging textual, visual, and relational content in the form of status updates, profile pictures and Facebook page likes. Our experimental results demonstrate that our proposed model successfully incorporates multiple sources of information and outperforms competing methods that use only one source of information or an ensemble method across the different sources for modeling of users in social media.


Compiling Stochastic Constraint Programs to And-Or Decision Diagrams

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

Factored stochastic constraint programming (FSCP) is a formalism to represent multi-stage decision making problems under uncertainty. FSCP models support factorized probabilistic models and involve constraints over decision and random variables. These models have many applications in real-world problems. However, solving these problems requires evaluating the best course of action for each possible outcome of the random variables and hence is computationally challenging. FSCP problems often involve repeated subproblems which ideally should be solved once. In this paper we show how identifying and exploiting these identical subproblems can simplify solving them and leads to a compact representation of the solution. We compile an And-Or search tree to a compact decision diagram. Preliminary experiments show that our proposed method significantly improves the search efficiency by reducing the size of the problem and outperforms the existing methods.


Learning Fair Naive Bayes Classifiers by Discovering and Eliminating Discrimination Patterns

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

As machine learning is increasingly used to make real-world decisions, recent research efforts aim to define and ensure fairness in algorithmic decision making. Existing methods often assume a fixed set of observable features to define individuals, but lack a discussion of certain features not being observed at test time. In this paper, we study fairness of naive Bayes classifiers, which allow partial observations. In particular, we introduce the notion of a discrimination pattern, which refers to an individual receiving different classifications depending on whether some sensitive attributes were observed. Then a model is considered fair if it has no such pattern. We propose an algorithm to discover and mine for discrimination patterns in a naive Bayes classifier, and show how to learn maximum-likelihood parameters subject to these fairness constraints. Our approach iteratively discovers and eliminates discrimination patterns until a fair model is learned. An empirical evaluation on three real-world datasets demonstrates that we can remove exponentially many discrimination patterns by only adding a small fraction of them as constraints.


A Fairness-aware Hybrid Recommender System

arXiv.org Machine Learning

Recommender systems are used in variety of domains affecting people's lives. This has raised concerns about possible biases and discrimination that such systems might exacerbate. There are two primary kinds of biases inherent in recommender systems: observation bias and bias stemming from imbalanced data. Observation bias exists due to a feedback loop which causes the model to learn to only predict recommendations similar to previous ones. Imbalance in data occurs when systematic societal, historical, or other ambient bias is present in the data. In this paper, we address both biases by proposing a hybrid fairness-aware recommender system. Our model provides efficient and accurate recommendations by incorporating multiple user-user and item-item similarity measures, content, and demographic information, while addressing recommendation biases. We implement our model using a powerful and expressive probabilistic programming language called probabilistic soft logic. We experimentally evaluate our approach on a popular movie recommendation dataset, showing that our proposed model can provide more accurate and fairer recommendations, compared to a state-of-the art fair recommender system.


Scalable Structure Learning for Probabilistic Soft Logic

arXiv.org Machine Learning

Statistical relational frameworks such as Markov logic networks and probabilistic soft logic (PSL) encode model structure with weighted first-order logical clauses. Learning these clauses from data is referred to as structure learning. Structure learning alleviates the manual cost of specifying models. However, this benefit comes with high computational costs; structure learning typically requires an expensive search over the space of clauses which involves repeated optimization of clause weights. In this paper, we propose the first two approaches to structure learning for PSL. We introduce a greedy search-based algorithm and a novel optimization method that trade-off scalability and approximations to the structure learning problem in varying ways. The highly scalable optimization method combines data-driven generation of clauses with a piecewise pseudolikelihood (PPLL) objective that learns model structure by optimizing clause weights only once. We compare both methods across five real-world tasks, showing that PPLL achieves an order of magnitude runtime speedup and AUC gains up to 15% over greedy search.


Fairness-Aware Relational Learning and Inference

AAAI Conferences

AI and machine learning tools are being used with increasing frequency for decision making in domains that affect peoples' lives such as employment, education, policing and loan approval. These uses raise concerns about biases of algorithmic discrimination and have motivated the development of fairness-aware machine learning. However, existing fairness approaches are based solely on attributes of individuals. In many cases, discrimination is much more complex, and taking into account the social, organizational, and other connections between individuals is important. We introduce new notions of fairness that are able to capture the relational structure in a domain. We use first-order logic to provide a flexible and expressive language for specifying complex relational patterns of discrimination. We incorporate our definition of relational fairness to propose 1) fairness-aware constrained conditional inference subject to common data-oriented fairness measures and 2) fairness-aware parameter learning by incorporating decision-oriented fairness measures.


Farnadi

AAAI Conferences

AI and machine learning tools are being used with increasing frequency for decision making in domains that affect peoples' lives such as employment, education, policing and loan approval. These uses raise concerns about biases of algorithmic discrimination and have motivated the development of fairness-aware machine learning. However, existing fairness approaches are based solely on attributes of individuals. In many cases, discrimination is much more complex, and taking into account the social, organizational, and other connections between individuals is important. We introduce new notions of fairness that are able to capture the relational structure in a domain. We use first-order logic to provide a flexible and expressive language for specifying complex relational patterns of discrimination. We incorporate our definition of relational fairness to propose 1) fairness-aware constrained conditional inference subject to common data-oriented fairness measures and 2) fairness-aware parameter learning by incorporating decision-oriented fairness measures.


Farnadi

AAAI Conferences

Nowadays web users actively generate content on different social media platforms. The large number of users requiring personalized services creates a unique opportunity for researchers to explore user modelling. Substantial research has been done by utilizing user generated content to model users by applying different classification or regression techniques. These techniques are powerful types of machine learning approaches, however they only partially model social media users. In this work, we introduce a new statistical relational learning (SRL) framework suitable for this purpose, which we call PSLQ.


Statistical Relational Learning Towards Modelling Social Media Users

AAAI Conferences

Nowadays web users actively generate content on different social media platforms. The large number of users requiring personalized services creates a unique opportunity for researchers to explore user modelling. Substantial research has been done by utilizing user generated content to model users by applying different classification or regression techniques. These techniques are powerful types of machine learning approaches, however they only partially model social media users. In this work, we introduce a new statistical relational learning (SRL) framework suitable for this purpose, which we call PSL Q . PSL Q is the first SRL framework that supports reasoning with soft quantifiers, such as “most” and “a few”. Indeed, in models for social media it is common to assume that friends are influenced by each other’s behavior, beliefs, and preferences. Thus, having a trait only becomes probable once most or some of one’s friends have that trait. Expressing this dependency requires a soft quantifier, which can be modeled with PSL^Q. Our experimental results for link prediction in social trust networks demonstrate that the use of soft quantifiers not only allows for a natural and intuitive formulation of domain knowledge, but also improves the accuracy of inferred results.


Farnadi

AAAI Conferences

Probabilistic soft logic (PSL) is a probabilistic modeling framework which uses first-order logic and soft truth values in the interval[0;1] for reasoning in relational domains. PSL uses the Łukasiewicz t-norm and t-conorm from fuzzy logic to model respectively conjunction and disjunction. A PSL rule such as Trusts(A;X) Trusts(X;B)- Trusts(A;B) models that "A trusts B" is true to the degree to which there is a trusted third party X. In the current version of PSL there is no way to express that A should trust B if most trusted friends of A trust B. In this work, we propose an extension of PSL with fuzzy quantifiers to address this limitation.