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Ding, Bolin


A Pluggable Learned Index Method via Sampling and Gap Insertion

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

Database indexes facilitate data retrieval and benefit broad applications in real-world systems. Recently, a new family of index, named learned index, is proposed to learn hidden yet useful data distribution and incorporate such information into the learning of indexes, which leads to promising performance improvements. However, the "learning" process of learned indexes is still under-explored. In this paper, we propose a formal machine learning based framework to quantify the index learning objective, and study two general and pluggable techniques to enhance the learning efficiency and learning effectiveness for learned indexes. With the guidance of the formal learning objective, we can efficiently learn index by incorporating the proposed sampling technique, and learn precise index with enhanced generalization ability brought by the proposed result-driven gap insertion technique. We conduct extensive experiments on real-world datasets and compare several indexing methods from the perspective of the index learning objective. The results show the ability of the proposed framework to help to design suitable indexes for different scenarios. Further, we demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed sampling technique, which achieves up to 78x construction speedup while maintaining non-degraded indexing performance. Finally, we show the gap insertion technique can enhance both the static and dynamic indexing performances of existing learned index methods with up to 1.59x query speedup. We will release our codes and processed data for further study, which can enable more exploration of learned indexes from both the perspectives of machine learning and database.


Interactive Feature Generation via Learning Adjacency Tensor of Feature Graph

arXiv.org Machine Learning

To automate the generation of interactive features, recent methods are proposed to either explicitly traverse the interactive feature space or implicitly express the interactions via intermediate activations of some designed models. These two kinds of methods show that there is essentially a trade-off between feature interpretability and efficient search. To possess both of their merits, we propose a novel method named Feature Interaction Via Edge Search (FIVES), which formulates the task of interactive feature generation as searching for edges on the defined feature graph. We first present our theoretical evidence that motivates us to search for interactive features in an inductive manner. Then we instantiate this search strategy by alternatively updating the edge structure and the predictive model of a graph neural network (GNN) associated with the defined feature graph. In this way, the proposed FIVES method traverses a trimmed search space and enables explicit feature generation according to the learned adjacency tensor of the GNN. Experimental results on both benchmark and real-world datasets demonstrate the advantages of FIVES over several state-of-the-art methods.


Simple and Deep Graph Convolutional Networks

arXiv.org Machine Learning

Graph convolutional networks (GCNs) are a powerful deep learning approach for graph-structured data. Recently, GCNs and subsequent variants have shown superior performance in various application areas on real-world datasets. Despite their success, most of the current GCN models are shallow, due to the {\em over-smoothing} problem. In this paper, we study the problem of designing and analyzing deep graph convolutional networks. We propose the GCNII, an extension of the vanilla GCN model with two simple yet effective techniques: {\em Initial residual} and {\em Identity mapping}. We provide theoretical and empirical evidence that the two techniques effectively relieves the problem of over-smoothing. Our experiments show that the deep GCNII model outperforms the state-of-the-art methods on various semi- and full-supervised tasks. Code is available at https://github.com/chennnM/GCNII .


An Algorithmic Framework For Differentially Private Data Analysis on Trusted Processors

Neural Information Processing Systems

Differential privacy has emerged as the main definition for private data analysis and machine learning. The global model of differential privacy, which assumes that users trust the data collector, provides strong privacy guarantees and introduces small errors in the output. Here, users do not trust the data collector, and hence randomize their data before sending it to the data collector. Unfortunately, local model is too strong for several important applications and hence is limited in its applicability. In this work, we propose a framework based on trusted processors and a new definition of differential privacy called Oblivious Differential Privacy, which combines the best of both local and global models.


Automated Relational Meta-learning

arXiv.org Machine Learning

In order to efficiently learn with small amount of data on new tasks, meta-learning transfers knowledge learned from previous tasks to the new ones. However, a critical challenge in meta-learning is the task heterogeneity which cannot be well handled by traditional globally shared meta-learning methods. In addition, current task-specific meta-learning methods may either suffer from hand-crafted structure design or lack the capability to capture complex relations between tasks. In this paper, motivated by the way of knowledge organization in knowledge bases, we propose an automated relational meta-learning (ARML) framework that automatically extracts the cross-task relations and constructs the meta-knowledge graph. When a new task arrives, it can quickly find the most relevant structure and tailor the learned structure knowledge to the meta-learner. As a result, the proposed framework not only addresses the challenge of task heterogeneity by a learned meta-knowledge graph, but also increases the model interpretability. We conduct extensive experiments on 2D toy regression and few-shot image classification and the results demonstrate the superiority of ARML over state-of-the-art baselines.


Continuous Integration of Machine Learning Models with ease.ml/ci: Towards a Rigorous Yet Practical Treatment

arXiv.org Machine Learning

Continuous integration is an indispensable step of modern software engineering practices to systematically manage the life cycles of system development. Developing a machine learning model is no difference - it is an engineering process with a life cycle, including design, implementation, tuning, testing, and deployment. However, most, if not all, existing continuous integration engines do not support machine learning as first-class citizens. In this paper, we present ease.ml/ci, to our best knowledge, the first continuous integration system for machine learning. The challenge of building ease.ml/ci is to provide rigorous guarantees, e.g., single accuracy point error tolerance with 0.999 reliability, with a practical amount of labeling effort, e.g., 2K labels per test. We design a domain specific language that allows users to specify integration conditions with reliability constraints, and develop simple novel optimizations that can lower the number of labels required by up to two orders of magnitude for test conditions popularly used in real production systems.


Efficient Identification of Approximate Best Configuration of Training in Large Datasets

arXiv.org Machine Learning

A configuration of training refers to the combinations of feature engineering, learner, and its associated hyperparameters. Given a set of configurations and a large dataset randomly split into training and testing set, we study how to efficiently identify the best configuration with approximately the highest testing accuracy when trained from the training set. To guarantee small accuracy loss, we develop a solution using confidence interval (CI)-based progressive sampling and pruning strategy. Compared to using full data to find the exact best configuration, our solution achieves more than two orders of magnitude speedup, while the returned top configuration has identical or close test accuracy.


Towards Differentially Private Truth Discovery for Crowd Sensing Systems

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

Nowadays, crowd sensing becomes increasingly more popular due to the ubiquitous usage of mobile devices. However, the quality of such human-generated sensory data varies significantly among different users. To better utilize sensory data, the problem of truth discovery, whose goal is to estimate user quality and infer reliable aggregated results through quality-aware data aggregation, has emerged as a hot topic. Although the existing truth discovery approaches can provide reliable aggregated results, they fail to protect the private information of individual users. Moreover, crowd sensing systems typically involve a large number of participants, making encryption or secure multi-party computation based solutions difficult to deploy. To address these challenges, in this paper, we propose an efficient privacy-preserving truth discovery mechanism with theoretical guarantees of both utility and privacy. The key idea of the proposed mechanism is to perturb data from each user independently and then conduct weighted aggregation among users' perturbed data. The proposed approach is able to assign user weights based on information quality, and thus the aggregated results will not deviate much from the true results even when large noise is added. We adapt local differential privacy definition to this privacy-preserving task and demonstrate the proposed mechanism can satisfy local differential privacy while preserving high aggregation accuracy. We formally quantify utility and privacy trade-off and further verify the claim by experiments on both synthetic data and a real-world crowd sensing system.


Comparing Population Means Under Local Differential Privacy: With Significance and Power

AAAI Conferences

A statistical hypothesis test determines whether a hypothesis should be rejected based on samples from populations. In particular, randomized controlled experiments (or A/B testing) that compare population means using, e.g., t-tests, have been widely deployed in technology companies to aid in making data-driven decisions. Samples used in these tests are collected from users and may contain sensitive information. Both the data collection and the testing process may compromise individuals’ privacy. In this paper, we study how to conduct hypothesis tests to compare population means while preserving privacy. We use the notation of local differential privacy (LDP), which has recently emerged as the main tool to ensure each individual’s privacy without the need of a trusted data collector. We propose LDP tests that inject noise into every user’s data in the samples before collecting them (so users do not need to trust the data collector), and draw conclusions with bounded type-I (significance level) and type-II errors (1 - power). Our approaches can be extended to the scenario where some users require LDP while some are willing to provide exact data. We report experimental results on real-world datasets to verify the effectiveness of our approaches.