If you are looking for an answer to the question What is Artificial Intelligence? and you only have a minute, then here's the definition the Association for the Advancement of Artificial Intelligence offers on its home page: "the scientific understanding of the mechanisms underlying thought and intelligent behavior and their embodiment in machines."
However, if you are fortunate enough to have more than a minute, then please get ready to embark upon an exciting journey exploring AI (but beware, it could last a lifetime) …
Robotic motion-planning problems, such as a UAV flying fast in a partially-known environment or a robot arm moving around cluttered objects, require finding collision-free paths quickly. Typically, this is solved by constructing a graph, where vertices represent robot configurations and edges represent potentially valid movements of the robot between theses configurations. The main computational bottlenecks are expensive edge evaluations to check for collisions. State of the art planning methods do not reason about the optimal sequence of edges to evaluate in order to find a collision free path quickly. In this paper, we do so by drawing a novel equivalence between motion planning and the Bayesian active learning paradigm of decision region determination (DRD).
Aerial cinematography is revolutionizing industries that require live and dynamic camera viewpoints such as entertainment, sports, and security. However, safely piloting a drone while filming a moving target in the presence of obstacles is immensely taxing, often requiring multiple expert human operators. Hence, there is demand for an autonomous cinematographer that can reason about both geometry and scene context in real-time. Existing approaches do not address all aspects of this problem; they either require high-precision motion-capture systems or GPS tags to localize targets, rely on prior maps of the environment, plan for short time horizons, or only follow artistic guidelines specified before flight. In this work, we address the problem in its entirety and propose a complete system for real-time aerial cinematography that for the first time combines: (1) vision-based target estimation; (2) 3D signed-distance mapping for occlusion estimation; (3) efficient trajectory optimization for long time-horizon camera motion; and (4) learning-based artistic shot selection. We extensively evaluate our system both in simulation and in field experiments by filming dynamic targets moving through unstructured environments. Our results indicate that our system can operate reliably in the real world without restrictive assumptions. We also provide in-depth analysis and discussions for each module, with the hope that our design tradeoffs can generalize to other related applications. Videos of the complete system can be found at: https://youtu.be/ookhHnqmlaU.
We address the problem of imitation learning with multi-modal demonstrations. Instead of attempting to learn all modes, we argue that in many tasks it is sufficient to imitate any one of them. We show that the state-of-the-art methods such as GAIL and behavior cloning, due to their choice of loss function, often incorrectly interpolate between such modes. Our key insight is to minimize the right divergence between the learner and the expert state-action distributions, namely the reverse KL divergence or I-projection. We propose a general imitation learning framework for estimating and minimizing any f-Divergence. By plugging in different divergences, we are able to recover existing algorithms such as Behavior Cloning (Kullback-Leibler), GAIL (Jensen Shannon) and DAGGER (Total Variation). Empirical results show that our approximate I-projection technique is able to imitate multi-modal behaviors more reliably than GAIL and behavior cloning.
We present the first PAC optimal algorithm for Bayes-Adaptive Markov Decision Processes (BAMDPs) in continuous state and action spaces, to the best of our knowledge. The BAMDP framework elegantly addresses model uncertainty by incorporating Bayesian belief updates into long-term expected return. However, computing an exact optimal Bayesian policy is intractable. Our key insight is to compute a near-optimal value function by covering the continuous state-belief-action space with a finite set of representative samples and exploiting the Lipschitz continuity of the value function. We prove the near-optimality of our algorithm and analyze a number of schemes that boost the algorithm's efficiency. Finally, we empirically validate our approach on a number of discrete and continuous BAMDPs and show that the learned policy has consistently competitive performance against baseline approaches.
Autonomous aerial cinematography has the potential to enable automatic capture of aesthetically pleasing videos without requiring human intervention, empowering individuals with the capability of high-end film studios. Current approaches either only handle off-line trajectory generation, or offer strategies that reason over short time horizons and simplistic representations for obstacles, which result in jerky movement and low real-life applicability. In this work we develop a method for aerial filming that is able to trade off shot smoothness, occlusion, and cinematography guidelines in a principled manner, even under noisy actor predictions. We present a novel algorithm for real-time covariant gradient descent that we use to efficiently find the desired trajectories by optimizing a set of cost functions. Experimental results show that our approach creates attractive shots, avoiding obstacles and occlusion 65 times over 1.25 hours of flight time, re-planning at 5 Hz with a 10 s time horizon. We robustly film human actors, cars and bicycles performing different motion among obstacles, using various shot types.
Robotic motion-planning problems, such as a UAV flying fast in a partially-known environment or a robot arm moving around cluttered objects, require finding collision-free paths quickly. Typically, this is solved by constructing a graph, where vertices represent robot configurations and edges represent potentially valid movements of the robot between theses configurations. The main computational bottlenecks are expensive edge evaluations to check for collisions. State of the art planning methods do not reason about the optimal sequence of edges to evaluate in order to find a collision free path quickly. In this paper, we do so by drawing a novel equivalence between motion planning and the Bayesian active learning paradigm of decision region determination (DRD). Unfortunately, a straight application of ex- isting methods requires computation exponential in the number of edges in a graph. We present BISECT, an efficient and near-optimal algorithm to solve the DRD problem when edges are independent Bernoulli random variables. By leveraging this property, we are able to significantly reduce computational complexity from exponential to linear in the number of edges. We show that BISECT outperforms several state of the art algorithms on a spectrum of planning problems for mobile robots, manipulators, and real flight data collected from a full scale helicopter. Open-source code and details can be found here: https://github.com/sanjibac/matlab_learning_collision_checking