Baral, Chitta


Towards Addressing the Winograd Schema Challenge — Building and Using a Semantic Parser and a Knowledge Hunting Module

AAAI Conferences

Concerned about the Turing test's ability to correctly evaluate if a system exhibits human-like intelligence, the Winograd Schema Challenge (WSC) has been proposed as an alternative. A Winograd Schema consists of a sentence and a question. The answers to the questions are intuitive for humans but are designed to be difficult for machines, as they require various forms of commonsense knowledge about the sentence. In this paper we demonstrate our progress towards addressing the WSC. We present an approach that identifies the knowledge needed to answer a challenge question, hunts down that knowledge from text repositories, and then reasons with them to come up with the answer. In the process we develop a semantic parser (www.kparser.org). We show that our approach works well with respect to a subset of Winograd schemas.


Exploring the KD45 Property of a Kripke Model After the Execution of an Action Sequence

AAAI Conferences

The paper proposes a condition for preserving the KD45 property of a Kripke model when a sequence of update models is applied to it. The paper defines the notions of a primitive update model and a semi-reflexive KD45 (or sr-KD45) Kripke model. It proves that updating a sr-KD45 Kripke model using a primitive update model results in a sr-KD45 Kripke model, i.e., a primitive update model preserves the properties of a sr-KD45 Kripke model. It shows that several update models for modeling well-known actions found in the literature are primitive. This result provides guarantees that can be useful in presence of multiple applications of actions in multi-agent system (e.g., multi-agent planning).


Pathway Specification and Comparative Queries: A High Level Language with Petri Net Semantics

AAAI Conferences

Understanding biological pathways is an important activity in the biological domain for drug development. Due to the parallelism and complexity inherent in pathways, computer models that can answer queries about pathways are needed. A researcher may ask `what-if' questions comparing alternate scenarios, that require deeper understanding of the underlying model. In this paper, we present overview of such a system we developed and an English-like high level language to express pathways and queries. Our language is inspired by high level action and query languages and it uses Petri Net execution semantics.


Solving Puzzles Described in English by Automated Translation to Answer Set Programming and Learning How to Do that Translation

AAAI Conferences

We present a system capable of automatically solving combinatorial logic puzzles given in (simplified) English. It uses an ontology to represent the puzzles in ASP which is applicable to a large set of logic puzzles. To translate the English descriptions of the puzzles into this ontology, we use a lambda-calculus based approach using Probabilistic Combinatorial Categorial Grammars (PCCG) where the meanings of words are associated with parameters to be able to distinguish between multiple meanings of the same word.


From Knowledge Represented in Frame-Based Languages to Declarative Representation and Reasoning via ASP

AAAI Conferences

In this paper we encode some of the reasoning methods used in frame based knowledge representation languages in answer set programming (ASP). In particular, we show how ``cloning'' and ``unification'' in frame based systems can be encoded in ASP. We then show how some of the types of queries with respect to a biological knowledge base can be encoded using our methodology. We also provide insight on how the reasoning can be done more efficiently when dealing with a huge knowledge base.


Reasoning about Actions and Change: From Single Agent Actions to Multi-Agent Actions (Extended Abstract)

AAAI Conferences

We often deal with dynamic worlds where actions are executed by agents and events may happen. Example of such worlds range from virtual worlds such as the world of a database to robots and humans in physical worlds. To understand the dynamics of such worlds as well as to be able to assert some control over such worlds one needs to reason about the actions and events and how they may change the world. In this invited talk we will present some of the important results in this field and present some future directions. In particular, we will discuss how theories and results from reasoning about actions and change can be combined with theories and results in dynamic epistemic logics to obtain a unified theory of multi-agent actions.



AAAI 2008 Spring Symposia Reports

AI Magazine

The titles of the eight symposia were as follows: (1) AI Meets Business Rules and Process Management, (2) Architectures for Intelligent Theory-Based Agents, (3) Creative Intelligent Systems, (4) Emotion, Personality, and Social Behavior, (5) Semantic Scientific Knowledge Integration, (6) Social Information Processing, (7) Symbiotic Relationships between Semantic Web and Knowledge Engineering, (8) Using AI to Motivate Greater Participation in Computer Science The goal of the AI Meets Business Rules and Process Management AAAI symposium was to investigate the various approaches and standards to represent business rules, business process management and the semantic web with respect to expressiveness and reasoning capabilities. The Semantic Scientific Knowledge Symposium was interested in bringing together the semantic technologies community with the scientific information technology community in an effort to build the general semantic science information community. The Social Information Processing's goal was to investigate computational and analytic approaches that will enable users to harness the efforts of large numbers of other users to solve a variety of information processing problems, from discovering high-quality content to managing common resources. The purpose of the Using AI to Motivate Greater Participation in Computer Science symposium was to identify ways that topics in AI may be used to motivate greater student participation in computer science by highlighting fun, engaging, and intellectually challenging developments in AI-related curriculum at a number of educational levels.


AAAI 2008 Spring Symposia Reports

AI Magazine

The Association for the Advancement of Artificial Intelligence (AAAI) was pleased to present the AAAI 2008 Spring Symposium Series, held Wednesday through Friday, March 26–28, 2008 at Stanford University, California. The titles of the eight symposia were as follows: (1) AI Meets Business Rules and Process Management, (2) Architectures for Intelligent Theory-Based Agents, (3) Creative Intelligent Systems, (4) Emotion, Personality, and Social Behavior, (5) Semantic Scientific Knowledge Integration, (6) Social Information Processing, (7) Symbiotic Relationships between Semantic Web and Knowledge Engineering, (8) Using AI to Motivate Greater Participation in Computer Science The goal of the AI Meets Business Rules and Process Management AAAI symposium was to investigate the various approaches and standards to represent business rules, business process management and the semantic web with respect to expressiveness and reasoning capabilities. The focus of the Architectures for Intelligent Theory-Based Agents AAAI symposium was the definition of architectures for intelligent theory-based agents, comprising languages, knowledge representation methodologies, reasoning algorithms, and control loops. The Creative Intelligent Systems Symposium included five major discussion sessions and a general poster session (in which all contributing papers were presented). The purpose of this symposium was to explore the synergies between creative cognition and intelligent systems. The goal of the Emotion, Personality, and Social Behavior symposium was to examine fundamental issues in affect and personality in both biological and artificial agents, focusing on the roles of these factors in mediating social behavior. The Semantic Scientific Knowledge Symposium was interested in bringing together the semantic technologies community with the scientific information technology community in an effort to build the general semantic science information community. The Social Information Processing's goal was to investigate computational and analytic approaches that will enable users to harness the efforts of large numbers of other users to solve a variety of information processing problems, from discovering high-quality content to managing common resources. The goal of the Symbiotic Relationships between the Semantic Web and Software Engineering symposium was to explore how the lessons learned by the knowledge-engineering community over the past three decades could be applied to the bold research agenda of current workers in semantic web technologies. The purpose of the Using AI to Motivate Greater Participation in Computer Science symposium was to identify ways that topics in AI may be used to motivate greater student participation in computer science by highlighting fun, engaging, and intellectually challenging developments in AI-related curriculum at a number of educational levels. Technical reports of the symposia were published by AAAI Press.


AAAI 2006 Spring Symposium Reports

AI Magazine

The Association for the Advancement of Artificial Intelligence, in cooperation with Stanford University's Computer Science Department, was pleased to present its 2006 Spring Symposium Series held March 27-29, 2006, at Stanford University, California.