"Fuzzy Logic is basically a multivalued logic that allows intermediate values to be defined between conventional evaluations like yes/no, true/false, black/white, etc. Notions like rather warm or pretty cold can be formulated mathematically and processed by computers."
– Peter Bauer, Stephan Nouak, and Roman Winkler. A Brief Course in Fuzzy Logic and Fuzzy Control. Available from ESRU [Energy Systems Research Unit], Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Strathclyde. 1996.
The First International Workshop on Rough Sets: State of the Art and Perspectives was held on 2-4 September 1992 in Kiekrz, Poland. To stimulate the discussion, the participation was limited to 40 researchers who are involved in fundamental research in rough set theory and its extensions, logic for approximate reasoning, machine learning, knowledge representation and transfer, and applications of rough set methodology. The workshop focused primarily on applications of the basic idea of the approximate definition of a set and its consequences in other areas of science and engineering. Applications discussed at the workshop included machine learning, medical diagnosis, fault detection, medical image processing, neural net training, database organization, drug research, and digital circuit design. The workshop was the first international meeting of researchers working in this relatively new area. The approximate definition of a set in terms of lower and upper bounds, as introduced in the ...
In fact, we have a knowledge infrastructure already, and it is already immense. AI Mugaztine 7(l): 34- served the most successful work on expert systems: that (today) knowledge comes (mostly) from people. Editor: Mark Stefik Xerox PARC 3333 Coyote Hill Road Palo Alto, California 94304 Workshop on the Foundations of Al: An On-The-Spot Report The NSF and AAAI sponsored Workshop on the Foundations of AI (6-8 February 1986, Las Cruces, New Mexico) is over and, from my perspective at least, it was a very worthwhile event. I am preparing a report that I will send to you in due course. In addition, I noticed that John McCarthy was snapping freely with his camera at the workshop.
A hybrid fuzzy knowledge-based system with crisp and fuzzy rules as well as numerical methods was developed for multiobjective optimization of power distribution system operation. The development process and knowledge-acquisition process for the fuzzy knowledge-based system are described in detail. Fuzzy sets are defined for recent temperature trend, line section loading, transformer aging, voltage-level guidelines, and the degree of desirability of a proposed switching combination. After a heuristic preprocessor proposes a list of switch openings that would seem to reduce system losses, network radiality rules consider whether to open a particular switch and find a corresponding switch that can be closed to maintain radiality. Network parameter rules determine whether the proposed switching combination will violate network integrity.
Foremost Manufacturing Inc. (Union, NJ), a manufacturer of reflectors for lighting fixtures, has adopted a fuzzy logic-based application to produce quotations for customers in less time. The company is using a fuzzy system to produce bids in about 1.5 minutes, compared to an industry average of two weeks. Carnegie Group Inc. (Pittsburgh, PA) has developed a hybrid neural network/expert system for diagnostic situations where signal data and symbolic data must be combined to perform a definitive diagnosis and repair procedure. This technology was developed with funding from the National Science Foundation. Working with experts from Armco Steel (Middletown, OH), Carnegie Group developed a prototype system to diagnose chatter in a coldrolling mill.
Humans have a remarkable capability to perform a wide variety of physical and mental tasks without any measurements and any computations. Familiar examples are parking a car, driving in city traffic, playing golf, cooking a meal, and summarizing a story. In performing such tasks, humans use perceptions of time, direction, speed, shape, possibility, likelihood, truth, and other attributes of physical and mental objects. Reflecting the bounded ability of the human brain to resolve detail, perceptions are intrinsically imprecise. In more concrete terms, perceptions are f-granular, meaning that (1) the boundaries of perceived classes are unsharp and (2) the values of attributes are granulated, with a granule being a clump of values (points, objects) drawn together by indistinguishability, similarity, proximity, and function.
Reinforcement learning is a body of theory and techniques for optimal sequential decision making developed in the last thirty years primarily within the machine learning and operations research communities, and which has separately become important in psychology and neuroscience. This tutorial will develop an intuitive understanding of the underlying formal problem (Markov decision processes) and its core solution methods, including dynamic programming, Monte Carlo methods, and temporal-difference learning. It will focus on how these methods have been combined with parametric function approximation, including deep learning, to find good approximate solutions to problems that are otherwise too large to be addressed at all.
Arthur C. Clarke famously stated that "any sufficiently advanced technology is indistinguishable from magic." No current technology embodies this statement more than neural networks and deep learning. And like any good magic it not only dazzles and inspires but also puts fear into people's hearts. One known property of artificial neural networks (ANNs) is that they are universal function approximators. This means that any mathematical function can be represented by a neural network.
Inference Engine It accepts and promotes human interpretation by making fuzzy inference according to inputs and IF-THEN rules. A number of other concepts are associated with fuzzy logic such as fuzzy set theory, fuzzy modelling, the fuzzy control system that have been developed for further enhancement. In control systems theory, if the fuzzy interpretation of the problem is appropriate and if the fuzzy theory is developed precise and correct, then fuzzy controllers can be accordingly designed and they work quite well to their advantages. Most of the fuzzy logic control systems are knowledge-based systems which mean either their fuzzy models or their fuzzy logic controllers are described by fuzzy logic IF-THEN rules.
In recent years, the term'machine learning' has become very popular among developers and business alike, even though research in the field has been going on for decades. Essentially, machine learning is about teaching machines to learn concepts and techniques the way humans do. While computer scientists were making huge strides in increasing computational performance by utilizing advancements in hardware to enable machines to solve complex calculations, hypotheses by their fellow researchers from AI on the ability of machines to think and act like humans were met with skepticism. A sub-field of AI, machine learning, saw rapid growth when companies such as Google and Facebook began to find new ways to utilize the troves of data for more profit.
We present CGO-AS, a generalized Ant System (AS) implemented in the framework of Cooperative Group Optimization (CGO), to show the leveraged optimization with a mixed individual and social learning. In CGO-AS, each ant (agent) is added with an individual memory, and is implemented with a novel search strategy to use individual and social cues in a controlled proportion. The presented CGO-AS is therefore especially useful in exposing the power of the mixed individual and social learning for improving optimization. The results prove that a cooperative ant group using both individual and social learning obtains a better performance than the systems solely using either individual or social learning.