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Fuzzy Logic


Neural Computing and Applications

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Neural Computing & Applications is an international journal which publishes original research and other information in the field of practical applications of neural computing and related techniques such as genetic algorithms, fuzzy logic and neuro-fuzzy systems. Featured contributions fall into several categories: Original Articles, Review Articles, Book Reviews, and Announcements. The Original Articles will be high-quality contributions, representing new and significant research, developments or applications of practical use and value. They will be reviewed by at least two referees. For all queries relating to papers after submission, please contact the Journal Editorial Office via "contact us" at Editorial Manager.


COVID-19 Outbreak Prediction with Machine Learning by Sina F. Ardabili, Amir Mosavi, Pedram Ghamisi, Filip Ferdinand, Annamaria R. Varkonyi-Koczy, Uwe Reuter, Timon Rabczuk, Peter M. Atkinson :: SSRN

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Several outbreak prediction models for COVID-19 are being used by officials around the world to make informed-decisions and enforce relevant control measures. Among the standard models for COVID-19 global pandemic prediction, simple epidemiological and statistical models have received more attention by authorities, and they are popular in the media. Due to a high level of uncertainty and lack of essential data, standard models have shown low accuracy for long-term prediction. Although the literature includes several attempts to address this issue, the essential generalization and robustness abilities of existing models needs to be improved. This paper presents a comparative analysis of machine learning and soft computing models to predict the COVID-19 outbreak as an alternative to SIR and SEIR models.


Algebraic Approach to Directed Rough Sets

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

In relational approach to general rough sets, ideas of directed relations are supplemented with additional conditions for multiple algebraic approaches in this research paper. The relations are also specialized to representations of general parthood that are upper-directed, reflexive and antisymmetric for a better behaved groupoidal semantics over the set of roughly equivalent objects by the first author. Another distinct algebraic semantics over the set of approximations, and a new knowledge interpretation are also invented in this research by her. Because of minimal conditions imposed on the relations, neighborhood granulations are used in the construction of all approximations (granular and pointwise). Necessary and sufficient conditions for the lattice of local upper approximations to be completely distributive are proved by the second author. These results are related to formal concept analysis. Applications to student centered learning and decision making are also outlined.


Belief functions induced by random fuzzy sets: Application to statistical inference

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

We revisit Zadeh's notion of "evidence of the second kind" and show that it provides the foundation for a general theory of epistemic random fuzzy sets, which generalizes both the Dempster-Shafer theory of belief functions and Possibility theory. In this perspective, Dempster-Shafer theory deals with belief functions generated by random sets, while Possibility theory deals with belief functions induced by fuzzy sets. The more general theory allows us to represent and combine evidence that is both uncertain and fuzzy. We demonstrate the application of this formalism to statistical inference, and show that it makes it possible to reconcile the possibilistic interpretation of likelihood with Bayesian inference.


Augmentation of the Reconstruction Performance of Fuzzy C-Means with an Optimized Fuzzification Factor Vector

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

Information granules have been considered to be the fundamental constructs of Granular Computing (GrC). As a useful unsupervised learning technique, Fuzzy C-Means (FCM) is one of the most frequently used methods to construct information granules. The FCM-based granulation-degranulation mechanism plays a pivotal role in GrC. In this paper, to enhance the quality of the degranulation (reconstruction) process, we augment the FCM-based degranulation mechanism by introducing a vector of fuzzification factors (fuzzification factor vector) and setting up an adjustment mechanism to modify the prototypes and the partition matrix. The design is regarded as an optimization problem, which is guided by a reconstruction criterion. In the proposed scheme, the initial partition matrix and prototypes are generated by the FCM. Then a fuzzification factor vector is introduced to form an appropriate fuzzification factor for each cluster to build up an adjustment scheme of modifying the prototypes and the partition matrix. With the supervised learning mode of the granulation-degranulation process, we construct a composite objective function of the fuzzification factor vector, the prototypes and the partition matrix. Subsequently, the particle swarm optimization (PSO) is employed to optimize the fuzzification factor vector to refine the prototypes and develop the optimal partition matrix. Finally, the reconstruction performance of the FCM algorithm is enhanced. We offer a thorough analysis of the developed scheme. In particular, we show that the classical FCM algorithm forms a special case of the proposed scheme. Experiments completed for both synthetic and publicly available datasets show that the proposed approach outperforms the generic data reconstruction approach.


Robert John obituary

The Guardian

My friend Robert John, professor of computer science at the University of Nottingham, who has died of liver cancer aged 64, pioneered the use of "type-2 fuzzy sets" in computational intelligence, to establish ways of reasoning algorithmically about linguistic concepts that involve uncertainty – something humans are good at, but computers are not. In the 1990s, while Rob (as he was known to family, though called Bob by work colleagues) was working at De Montfort University, he became involved in research into solving a community transport scheduling problem using fuzzy logic. Working from the foundations laid by Prof Lotfi Zadeh, Rob, through his PhD in 2000 and subsequent work with Prof Jerry Mendel and others, developed the mathematical techniques to use type-2 fuzzy sets. Two papers on type-2 and interval type-2 that he wrote with Mendel are among the most frequently cited and influential in the world on the topic. Rob was a founder member in 1995 of the Centre for Computational Intelligence at De Montfort and led its growth through the 2000s, established his reputation in the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers' conferences and in journals on fuzzy logic, and was promoted over time to deputy dean.


Nonlinear Dimensionality Reduction for Data Visualization: An Unsupervised Fuzzy Rule-based Approach

arXiv.org Machine Learning

Here, we propose an unsupervised fuzzy rule-based dimensionality reduction method primarily for data visualization. It considers the following important issues relevant to dimensionality reduction-based data visualization: (i) preservation of neighborhood relationships, (ii) handling data on a non-linear manifold, (iii) the capability of predicting projections for new test data points, (iv) interpretability of the system, and (v) the ability to reject test points if required. For this, we use a first-order Takagi-Sugeno type model. We generate rule antecedents using clusters in the input data. In this context, we also propose a new variant of the Geodesic c-means clustering algorithm. We estimate the rule parameters by minimizing an error function that preserves the inter-point geodesic distances (distances over the manifold) as Euclidean distances on the projected space. We apply the proposed method on three synthetic and three real-world data sets and visually compare the results with four other standard data visualization methods. The obtained results show that the proposed method behaves desirably and performs better than or comparable to the methods compared with. The proposed method is found to be robust to the initial conditions. The predictability of the proposed method for test points is validated by experiments. We also assess the ability of our method to reject output points when it should. Then, we extend this concept to provide a general framework for learning an unsupervised fuzzy model for data projection with different objective functions. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first attempt to manifold learning using unsupervised fuzzy modeling.


Satirical News Detection with Semantic Feature Extraction and Game-theoretic Rough Sets

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

Satirical news detection is an important yet challenging task to prevent spread of misinformation. Many feature based and end-to-end neural nets based satirical news detection systems have been proposed and delivered promising results. Existing approaches explore comprehensive word features from satirical news articles, but lack semantic metrics using word vectors for tweet form satirical news. Moreover, the vagueness of satire and news parody determines that a news tweet can hardly be classified with a binary decision, that is, satirical or legitimate. To address these issues, we collect satirical and legitimate news tweets, and propose a semantic feature based approach. Features are extracted by exploring inconsistencies in phrases, entities, and between main and relative clauses. We apply game-theoretic rough set model to detect satirical news, in which probabilistic thresholds are derived by game equilibrium and repetition learning mechanism. Experimental results on the collected dataset show the robustness and improvement of the proposed approach compared with Pawlak rough set model and SVM.


A new approach for generation of generalized basic probability assignment in the evidence theory

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

The process of information fusion needs to deal with a large number of uncertain information with multi-source, heterogeneity, inaccuracy, unreliability, and incompleteness. In practical engineering applications, Dempster-Shafer evidence theory is widely used in multi-source information fusion owing to its effectiveness in data fusion. Information sources have an important impact on multi-source information fusion in an environment of complex, unstable, uncertain, and incomplete characteristics. To address multi-source information fusion problem, this paper considers the situation of uncertain information modeling from the closed world to the open world assumption and studies the generation of basic probability assignment (BPA) with incomplete information. In this paper, a new method is proposed to generate generalized basic probability assignment (GBPA) based on the triangular fuzzy number model under the open world assumption. The proposed method can not only be used in different complex environments simply and flexibly, but also have less information loss in information processing. Finally, a series of comprehensive experiments basing on the UCI data sets are used to verify the rationality and superiority of the proposed method.


Emotional Video to Audio Transformation Using Deep Recurrent Neural Networks and a Neuro-Fuzzy System

arXiv.org Machine Learning

Generating music with emotion similar to that of an input video is a very relevant issue nowadays. Video content creators and automatic movie directors benefit from maintaining their viewers engaged, which can be facilitated by producing novel material eliciting stronger emotions in them. Moreover, there's currently a demand for more empathetic computers to aid humans in applications such as augmenting the perception ability of visually and/or hearing impaired people. Current approaches overlook the video's emotional characteristics in the music generation step, only consider static images instead of videos, are unable to generate novel music, and require a high level of human effort and skills. In this study, we propose a novel hybrid deep neural network that uses an Adaptive Neuro-Fuzzy Inference System to predict a video's emotion from its visual features and a deep Long Short-Term Memory Recurrent Neural Network to generate its corresponding audio signals with similar emotional inkling. The former is able to appropriately model emotions due to its fuzzy properties, and the latter is able to model data with dynamic time properties well due to the availability of the previous hidden state information. The novelty of our proposed method lies in the extraction of visual emotional features in order to transform them into audio signals with corresponding emotional aspects for users. Quantitative experiments show low mean absolute errors of 0.217 and 0.255 in the Lindsey and DEAP datasets respectively, and similar global features in the spectrograms. This indicates that our model is able to appropriately perform domain transformation between visual and audio features. Based on experimental results, our model can effectively generate audio that matches the scene eliciting a similar emotion from the viewer in both datasets, and music generated by our model is also chosen more often.