Fuzzy Logic

An Evolutionary Hierarchical Interval Type-2 Fuzzy Knowledge Representation System (EHIT2FKRS) for Travel Route Assignment

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

Urban Traffic Networks are characterized by high dynamics of traffic flow and increased travel time, including waiting times. This leads to more complex road traffic management. The present research paper suggests an innovative advanced traffic management system based on Hierarchical Interval Type-2 Fuzzy Logic model optimized by the Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) method. The aim of designing this system is to perform dynamic route assignment to relieve traffic congestion and limit the unexpected fluctuation effects on traffic flow. The suggested system is executed and simulated using SUMO, a well-known microscopic traffic simulator. For the present study, we have tested four large and heterogeneous metropolitan areas located in the cities of Sfax, Luxembourg, Bologna and Cologne. The experimental results proved the effectiveness of learning the Hierarchical Interval type-2 Fuzzy logic using real time particle swarm optimization technique PSO to accomplish multiobjective optimality regarding two criteria: number of vehicles that reach their destination and average travel time. The obtained results are encouraging, confirming the efficiency of the proposed system.

Regularized Fuzzy Neural Networks to Aid Effort Forecasting in the Construction and Software Development

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

Predicting the time to build software is a very complex task for software engineering managers. There are complex factors that can directly interfere with the productivity of the development team. Factors directly related to the complexity of the system to be developed drastically change the time necessary for the completion of the works with the software factories. This work proposes the use of a hybrid system based on artificial neural networks and fuzzy systems to assist in the construction of an expert system based on rules to support in the prediction of hours destined to the development of software according to the complexity of the elements present in the same. The set of fuzzy rules obtained by the system helps the management and control of software development by providing a base of interpretable estimates based on fuzzy rules. The model was submitted to tests on a real database, and its results were promissory in the construction of an aid mechanism in the predictability of the software construction.

Fuzzy expert system for prediction of prostate cancer

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

A fuzzy expert system (FES) for the prediction of prostate cancer (PC) is prescribed in this article. Age, prostate-specific antigen (PSA), prostate volume (PV) and $\%$ Free PSA ($\%$FPSA) are fed as inputs into the FES and prostate cancer risk (PCR) is obtained as the output. Using knowledge based rules in Mamdani type inference method the output is calculated. If PCR $\ge 50\%$, then the patient shall be advised to go for a biopsy test for confirmation. The efficacy of the designed FES is tested against a clinical data set. The true prediction for all the patients turns out to be $68.91\%$ whereas only for positive biopsy cases it rises to $73.77\%$. This simple yet effective FES can be used as supportive tool for decision making in medical diagnosis.

Dialectical Rough Sets, Parthood and Figures of Opposition-1

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

In one perspective, the main theme of this research revolves around the inverse problem in the context of general rough sets that concerns the existence of rough basis for given approximations in a context. Granular operator spaces and variants were recently introduced by the present author as an optimal framework for anti-chain based algebraic semantics of general rough sets and the inverse problem. In the framework, various sub-types of crisp and non-crisp objects are identifiable that may be missed in more restrictive formalism. This is also because in the latter cases concepts of complementation and negation are taken for granted - while in reality they have a complicated dialectical basis. This motivates a general approach to dialectical rough sets building on previous work of the present author and figures of opposition. In this paper dialectical rough logics are invented from a semantic perspective, a concept of dialectical predicates is formalised, connection with dialetheias and glutty negation are established, parthood analyzed and studied from the viewpoint of classical and dialectical figures of opposition by the present author. Her methods become more geometrical and encompass parthood as a primary relation (as opposed to roughly equivalent objects) for algebraic semantics.

Granularity and Generalized Inclusion Functions - Their Variants and Contamination

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

Rough inclusion functions (RIFs) are known by many other names in formal approaches to vagueness, belief, and uncertainty. Their use is often poorly grounded in factual knowledge or involve wild statistical assumptions. The concept of contamination introduced and studied by the present author across a number of her papers, concerns mixing up of information across semantic domains (or domains of discourse). RIFs play a key role in contaminating algorithms and some solutions that seek to replace or avoid them have been proposed and investigated by the present author in some of her earlier papers. The proposals break many algorithms of rough sets in a serious way. In this research, algorithm-friendly granular generalizations of such functions that reduce contamination are proposed and investigated from a mathematically sound perspective. Interesting representation results are proved and a core algebraic strategy for generalizing Skowron-Polkowski style of rough mereology is formulated.

New Movement and Transformation Principle of Fuzzy Reasoning and Its Application to Fuzzy Neural Network

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

In this paper, we propose a new fuzzy reasoning principle, so called Movement and Transformation Principle(MTP). This Principle is to obtain a new fuzzy reasoning result by Movement and Transformation the consequent fuzzy set in response to the Movement, Transformation, and Movement-Transformation operations between the antecedent fuzzy set and fuzzificated observation information. And then we presented fuzzy modus ponens and fuzzy modus tollens based on MTP. We compare proposed method with Mamdani fuzzy system, Sugeno fuzzy system, Wang distance type fuzzy reasoning method and Hellendoorn functional type method. And then we applied to the learning experiments of the fuzzy neural network based on MTP and compared it with the Sugeno method. Through prediction experiments of fuzzy neural network on the precipitation data and security situation data, learning accuracy and time performance are clearly improved. Consequently we show that our method based on MTP is computationally simple and does not involve nonlinear operations, so it is easy to handle mathematically.

ANZ OnePath using AI and fuzzy logic to avoid 'the dreaded other'


Applying for life insurance is a long and often frustrating process. Thousands of questions on seemingly every medical condition ever suffered – except yours. "We've had multiple occurrences where people answer no to all the [medical] questions, then they come to the'other' box at the end and they'll go – 'oh yeah I've had X'. And that question is actually back there, but they didn't understand it so they defaulted to'other' and started writing chapter and verse about their medical condition," explains ANZ OnePath's chief underwriter Peter Tilocca. Whenever answers are given free form, typically the application will require the scrutiny of an underwriter.

Soft Concept Analysis

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

In this chapter we discuss soft concept analysis, a study which identifies an enriched notion of "conceptual scale" as developed in formal concept analysis with an enriched notion of "linguistic variable" as discussed in fuzzy logic. The identification "enriched conceptual scale" = "enriched linguistic variable" was made in a previous paper (Enriched interpretation, Robert E. Kent). In this chapter we offer further arguments for the importance of this identification by discussing the philosophy, spirit, and practical application of conceptual scaling to the discovery, conceptual analysis, interpretation, and categorization of networked information resources. We argue that a linguistic variable, which has been defined at just the right generalization of valuated categories, provides a natural definition for the process of soft conceptual scaling. This enrichment using valuated categories models the relation of indiscernability, a notion of central importance in rough set theory. At a more fundamental level for soft concept analysis, it also models the derivation of formal concepts, a process of central importance in formal concept analysis. Soft concept analysis is synonymous with enriched concept analysis. From one viewpoint, the study of soft concept analysis that is initiated here extends formal concept analysis to soft computational structures. From another viewpoint, soft concept analysis provides a natural foundation for soft computation by unifying and explaining notions from soft computation in terms of suitably generalized notions from formal concept analysis, rough set theory and fuzzy set theory.

Description of sup- and inf-preserving aggregation functions via families of clusters in data tables

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

Connection between the theory of aggregation functions and formal concept analysis is discussed and studied, thus filling a gap in the literature by building a bridge between these two theories, one of them living in the world of data fusion, the second one in the area of data mining. We show how Galois connections can be used to describe an important class of aggregation functions preserving suprema, and, by duality, to describe aggregation functions preserving infima. Our discovered method gives an elegant and complete description of these classes. Also possible applications of our results within certain biclustering fuzzy FCA-based methods are discussed.

Toward Human-Understandable, Explainable AI

IEEE Computer

Recent increases in computing power, coupled with rapid growth in the availability and quantity of data have rekindled our interest in the theory and applications of artificial intelligence (AI). However, for AI to be confidently rolled out by industries and governments, users want greater transparency through explainable AI (XAI) systems. The author introduces XAI concepts, and gives an overview of areas in need of further exploration--such as type-2 fuzzy logic systems--to ensure such systems can be fully understood and analyzed by the lay user.