"Fuzzy Logic is basically a multivalued logic that allows intermediate values to be defined between conventional evaluations like yes/no, true/false, black/white, etc. Notions like rather warm or pretty cold can be formulated mathematically and processed by computers."
– Peter Bauer, Stephan Nouak, and Roman Winkler. A Brief Course in Fuzzy Logic and Fuzzy Control. Available from ESRU [Energy Systems Research Unit], Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Strathclyde. 1996.
Applying for life insurance is a long and often frustrating process. Thousands of questions on seemingly every medical condition ever suffered – except yours. "We've had multiple occurrences where people answer no to all the [medical] questions, then they come to the'other' box at the end and they'll go – 'oh yeah I've had X'. And that question is actually back there, but they didn't understand it so they defaulted to'other' and started writing chapter and verse about their medical condition," explains ANZ OnePath's chief underwriter Peter Tilocca. Whenever answers are given free form, typically the application will require the scrutiny of an underwriter.
In this chapter we discuss soft concept analysis, a study which identifies an enriched notion of "conceptual scale" as developed in formal concept analysis with an enriched notion of "linguistic variable" as discussed in fuzzy logic. The identification "enriched conceptual scale" = "enriched linguistic variable" was made in a previous paper (Enriched interpretation, Robert E. Kent). In this chapter we offer further arguments for the importance of this identification by discussing the philosophy, spirit, and practical application of conceptual scaling to the discovery, conceptual analysis, interpretation, and categorization of networked information resources. We argue that a linguistic variable, which has been defined at just the right generalization of valuated categories, provides a natural definition for the process of soft conceptual scaling. This enrichment using valuated categories models the relation of indiscernability, a notion of central importance in rough set theory. At a more fundamental level for soft concept analysis, it also models the derivation of formal concepts, a process of central importance in formal concept analysis. Soft concept analysis is synonymous with enriched concept analysis. From one viewpoint, the study of soft concept analysis that is initiated here extends formal concept analysis to soft computational structures. From another viewpoint, soft concept analysis provides a natural foundation for soft computation by unifying and explaining notions from soft computation in terms of suitably generalized notions from formal concept analysis, rough set theory and fuzzy set theory.
Connection between the theory of aggregation functions and formal concept analysis is discussed and studied, thus filling a gap in the literature by building a bridge between these two theories, one of them living in the world of data fusion, the second one in the area of data mining. We show how Galois connections can be used to describe an important class of aggregation functions preserving suprema, and, by duality, to describe aggregation functions preserving infima. Our discovered method gives an elegant and complete description of these classes. Also possible applications of our results within certain biclustering fuzzy FCA-based methods are discussed.
Recent increases in computing power, coupled with rapid growth in the availability and quantity of data have rekindled our interest in the theory and applications of artificial intelligence (AI). However, for AI to be confidently rolled out by industries and governments, users want greater transparency through explainable AI (XAI) systems. The author introduces XAI concepts, and gives an overview of areas in need of further exploration--such as type-2 fuzzy logic systems--to ensure such systems can be fully understood and analyzed by the lay user.
MIT boffins reckon they can use old-school artificial intelligence to do much of the grunt work in the tricky task of picking suitable landing spots for spacecraft. The software uses fuzzy logic algorithms, which were introduced in the 1960s and were rather trendy in the 1990s. "Traditionally this idea comes from mathematics, where instead of saying an element belongs to a set, yes or no, fuzzy logic says it belongs with a certain probability, thus reflecting incomplete or imprecise information," Victor Pankratius, coauthor of the paper and a research scientist and principal investigator in NASA and National Science Foundation projects at MIT, explained this week. NASA and other space agencies have slowly amassed troves of geographical data on Mars. The researchers reckon that NASA has over 100 Terabits from all the different orbiters, landers, and rovers sent to the Red Planet, but it's still not enough to completely determine the exact conditions on the ground there.
This investigation aims to study different adaptive fuzzy inference algorithms capable of real-time sequential learning and prediction of time-series data. A brief qualitative description of these algorithms namely meta-cognitive fuzzy inference system (McFIS), sequential adaptive fuzzy inference system (SAFIS) and evolving Takagi-Sugeno (ETS) model provide a comprehensive comparison of their working principle, especially their unique characteristics are discussed. These algorithms are then simulated with dataset collected at one of the academic buildings at Nanyang Technological University, Singapore. The performance are compared by means of the root mean squared error (RMSE) and non-destructive error index (NDEI) of the predicted output. Analysis shows that McFIS shows promising results either with lower RMSE and NDEI or with lower architectural complexity over ETS and SAFIS. Statistical Analysis also reveals the significance of the outcome of these algorithms.
In fuzzy decision-making processes based on linguistic information, operations on discrete fuzzy numbers are commonly performed. Aggregation and defuzzification operations are some of these often used operations. Many aggregation and defuzzification operators produce results independent to the decision makers strategy. On the other hand, the Weighted Average Based on Levels (WABL) approach can take into account the level weights and the decision makers optimism strategy. This gives flexibility to the WABL operator and, through machine learning, can be trained in the direction of the decision makers strategy, producing more satisfactory results for the decision maker. However, in order to determine the WABL value, it is necessary to calculate some integrals. In this study, the concept of WABL for discrete trapezoidal fuzzy numbers is investigated, and analytical formulas have been proven to facilitate the calculation of WABL value for these fuzzy numbers. Trapezoidal and their special form, triangular fuzzy numbers, are the most commonly used fuzzy number types in fuzzy modeling, so in this study, such numbers have been studied. Computational examples explaining the theoretical results have been performed.
Owing to the expeditious growth in the information and communication technologies, smart cities have raised the expectations in terms of efficient functioning and management. One key aspect of residents' daily comfort is assured through affording reliable traffic management and route planning. Comprehensively, the majority of the present trip planning applications and service providers are enabling their trip planning recommendations relying on shortest paths and/or fastest routes. However, such suggestions may discount drivers' preferences with respect to safe and less disturbing trips. Road anomalies such as cracks, potholes, and manholes induce risky driving scenarios and can lead to vehicles damages and costly repairs. Accordingly, in this paper, we propose a crowdsensing based dynamic route planning system. Leveraging both the vehicle motion sensors and the inertial sensors within the smart devices, road surface types and anomalies have been detected and categorized. In addition, the monitored events are geo-referenced utilizing GPS receivers on both vehicles and smart devices. Consequently, road segments assessments are conducted using fuzzy system models based on aspects such as the number of anomalies and their severity levels in each road segment. Afterward, another fuzzy model is adopted to recommend the best trip routes based on the road segments quality in each potential route. Extensive road experiments are held to build and show the potential of the proposed system.
The ordered weighted averaging (OWA) operators play a crucial role in aggregating multiple criteria evaluations into an overall assessment supporting the decision makers' choice. One key point steps is to determine the associated weights. In this paper, we first briefly review some main methods for determining the weights by using distribution functions. Then we propose a new approach for determining OWA weights by using the RIM quantifier. Motivated by the idea of normal distribution-based method to determine the OWA weights, we develop a method based on elliptical distributions for determining the OWA weights, and some of its desirable properties have been investigated.