"Fuzzy Logic is basically a multivalued logic that allows intermediate values to be defined between conventional evaluations like yes/no, true/false, black/white, etc. Notions like rather warm or pretty cold can be formulated mathematically and processed by computers."
– Peter Bauer, Stephan Nouak, and Roman Winkler. A Brief Course in Fuzzy Logic and Fuzzy Control. Available from ESRU [Energy Systems Research Unit], Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Strathclyde. 1996.
This research work deals with Natural Language Processing (NLP) and extraction of essential information in an explicit form. The most common among the information management strategies is Document Retrieval (DR) and Information Filtering. DR systems may work as combine harvesters, which bring back useful material from the vast fields of raw material. With large amount of potentially useful information in hand, an Information Extraction (IE) system can then transform the raw material by refining and reducing it to a germ of original text. A Document Retrieval system collects the relevant documents carrying the required information, from the repository of texts. An IE system then transforms them into information that is more readily digested and analyzed. It isolates relevant text fragments, extracts relevant information from the fragments, and then arranges together the targeted information in a coherent framework. The thesis presents a new approach for Word Sense Disambiguation using thesaurus. The illustrative examples supports the effectiveness of this approach for speedy and effective disambiguation. A Document Retrieval method, based on Fuzzy Logic has been described and its application is illustrated. A question-answering system describes the operation of information extraction from the retrieved text documents. The process of information extraction for answering a query is considerably simplified by using a Structured Description Language (SDL) which is based on cardinals of queries in the form of who, what, when, where and why. The thesis concludes with the presentation of a novel strategy based on Dempster-Shafer theory of evidential reasoning, for document retrieval and information extraction. This strategy permits relaxation of many limitations, which are inherent in Bayesian probabilistic approach.
The use of machine learning algorithms in finance, medicine, and criminal justice can deeply impact human lives. As a consequence, research into interpretable machine learning has rapidly grown in an attempt to better control and fix possible sources of mistakes and biases. Tree ensembles offer a good prediction quality in various domains, but the concurrent use of multiple trees reduces the interpretability of the ensemble. Against this background, we study born-again tree ensembles, i.e., the process of constructing a single decision tree of minimum size that reproduces the exact same behavior as a given tree ensemble. To find such a tree, we develop a dynamic-programming based algorithm that exploits sophisticated pruning and bounding rules to reduce the number of recursive calls. This algorithm generates optimal born-again trees for many datasets of practical interest, leading to classifiers which are typically simpler and more interpretable without any other form of compromise.
Artificial intelligence has been applied in wildfire science and management since the 1990s, with early applications including neural networks and expert systems. Since then the field has rapidly progressed congruently with the wide adoption of machine learning (ML) in the environmental sciences. Here, we present a scoping review of ML in wildfire science and management. Our objective is to improve awareness of ML among wildfire scientists and managers, as well as illustrate the challenging range of problems in wildfire science available to data scientists. We first present an overview of popular ML approaches used in wildfire science to date, and then review their use in wildfire science within six problem domains: 1) fuels characterization, fire detection, and mapping; 2) fire weather and climate change; 3) fire occurrence, susceptibility, and risk; 4) fire behavior prediction; 5) fire effects; and 6) fire management. We also discuss the advantages and limitations of various ML approaches and identify opportunities for future advances in wildfire science and management within a data science context. We identified 298 relevant publications, where the most frequently used ML methods included random forests, MaxEnt, artificial neural networks, decision trees, support vector machines, and genetic algorithms. There exists opportunities to apply more current ML methods (e.g., deep learning and agent based learning) in wildfire science. However, despite the ability of ML models to learn on their own, expertise in wildfire science is necessary to ensure realistic modelling of fire processes across multiple scales, while the complexity of some ML methods requires sophisticated knowledge for their application. Finally, we stress that the wildfire research and management community plays an active role in providing relevant, high quality data for use by practitioners of ML methods.
In recent years there has been a push to integrate symbolic AI and deep learning, as it is argued that the strengths and weaknesses of these approaches are complementary. One such trend in the literature are weakly supervised learning techniques that use operators from fuzzy logics. They employ prior background knowledge described in logic to benefit the training of a neural network from unlabeled and noisy data. By interpreting logical symbols using neural networks, this background knowledge can be added to regular loss functions used in deep learning to integrate reasoning and learning. In this paper, we analyze how a large collection of logical operators from the fuzzy logic literature behave in a differentiable setting. We find large differences between the formal properties of these operators that are of crucial importance in a differentiable learning setting. We show that many of these operators, including some of the best known, are highly unsuitable for use in a differentiable learning setting. A further finding concerns the treatment of implication in these fuzzy logics, with a strong imbalance between gradients driven by the antecedent and the consequent of the implication. Finally, we empirically show that it is possible to use Differentiable Fuzzy Logics for semi-supervised learning. However, to achieve the most significant performance improvement over a supervised baseline, we have to resort to non-standard combinations of logical operators which perform well in learning, but which no longer satisfy the usual logical laws. We end with a discussion on extensions to large-scale problems.
Brain-Computer Interface (BCI) is a powerful communication tool between users and systems, which enhances the capability of the human brain in communicating and interacting with the environment directly. Advances in neuroscience and computer science in the past decades have led to exciting developments in BCI, thereby making BCI a top interdisciplinary research area in computational neuroscience and intelligence. Recent technological advances such as wearable sensing devices, real-time data streaming, machine learning, and deep learning approaches have increased interest in electroencephalographic (EEG) based BCI for translational and healthcare applications. Many people benefit from EEG-based BCIs, which facilitate continuous monitoring of fluctuations in cognitive states under monotonous tasks in the workplace or at home. In this study, we survey the recent literature of EEG signal sensing technologies and computational intelligence approaches in BCI applications, compensated for the gaps in the systematic summary of the past five years (2015-2019). In specific, we first review the current status of BCI and its significant obstacles. Then, we present advanced signal sensing and enhancement technologies to collect and clean EEG signals, respectively. Furthermore, we demonstrate state-of-art computational intelligence techniques, including interpretable fuzzy models, transfer learning, deep learning, and combinations, to monitor, maintain, or track human cognitive states and operating performance in prevalent applications. Finally, we deliver a couple of innovative BCI-inspired healthcare applications and discuss some future research directions in EEG-based BCIs.
Reinforcement Learning (RL) has demonstrated a great potential for automatically solving decision making problems in complex uncertain environments. Basically, RL proposes a computational approach that allows learning through interaction in an environment of stochastic behavior, with agents taking actions to maximize some cumulative short-term and long-term rewards. Some of the most impressive results have been shown in Game Theory where agents exhibited super-human performance in games like Go or Starcraft 2, which led to its adoption in many other domains including Cloud Computing. Particularly, workflow autoscaling exploits the Cloud elasticity to optimize the execution of workflows according to a given optimization criteria. This is a decision-making problem in which it is necessary to establish when and how to scale-up/down computational resources; and how to assign them to the upcoming processing workload. Such actions have to be taken considering some optimization criteria in the Cloud, a dynamic and uncertain environment. Motivated by this, many works apply RL to the autoscaling problem in Cloud. In this work we survey exhaustively those proposals from major venues, and uniformly compare them based on a set of proposed taxonomies. We also discuss open problems and provide a prospective of future research in the area.
In the context of some machine learning applications, obtaining data instances is a relatively easy process but labeling them could become quite expensive or tedious. Such scenarios lead to datasets with few labeled instances and a larger number of unlabeled ones. Semi-supervised classification techniques combine labeled and unlabeled data during the learning phase in order to increase classifier's generalization capability. Regrettably, most successful semi-supervised classifiers do not allow explaining their outcome, thus behaving like black boxes. However, there is an increasing number of problem domains in which experts demand a clear understanding of the decision process. In this paper, we report on an extended experimental study presenting an interpretable self-labeling grey-box classifier that uses a black box to estimate the missing class labels and a white box to make the final predictions. Two different approaches for amending the self-labeling process are explored: a first one based on the confidence of the black box and the latter one based on measures from Rough Set Theory. The results of the extended experimental study support the interpretability by means of transparency and simplicity of our classifier, while attaining superior prediction rates when compared with state-of-the-art self-labeling classifiers reported in the literature.
Since data collection and analysis are difficult, time consuming and costly, we are always looking for a way to optimum use of data to achieve the correct decision that can be referred to diagnose and experiment of diseases in healthcare organizations . In addition, common method such as angiography [5,6] in experimenting and diagnosing diseases is costly and have adverse effects for patients as healthcare resear chers are trying to utilize methods that avoid the high cost as well as the adverse effects of previous methods, which can be performed by using computer - aided disease diagnose methods means machine learning. Whereas, da ta mining process by utilizing machine learning science and database management knowledge  has become a robust tool for data analysis and management of health industry data which ultimately leads to knowledge extraction. It should be noted that, with the progress of technology in t he healthcare especially, healthcare industry 4.0, human lifetime has become progressive and more comfortable [ 7 ] . In this new generation, with the development of new medical devices, equipment and tools, new knowledge can be gained in the field of disease diagnosis.
An improved online learning algorithm for general fuzzy min-max neural network Thanh Tung Khuat Advanced Analytics Institute University of T echnology Sydney Sydney, Australia firstname.lastname@example.org Abstract --This paper proposes an improved version of the current online learning algorithm for a general fuzzy min-max neural network (GFMM) to tackle existing issues concerning expansion and contraction steps as well as the way of dealing with unseen data located on decision boundaries. These drawbacks lower its classification performance, so an improved algorithm is proposed in this study to address the above limitations. The proposed approach does not use the contraction process for overlapping hyperboxes, which is more likely to increase the error rate as shown in the literature. The empirical results indicated the improvement in the classification accuracy and stability of the proposed method compared to the original version and other fuzzy min-max classifiers. In order to reduce the sensitivity to the training samples presentation order of this new online learning algorithm, a simple ensemble method is also proposed. I NTRODUCTION Artificial neural networks (ANNs) are one of the most widely used methods for dealing with classification problems as well as real-world applications . However, the main disadvantage of the original ANNs is that they do not have the capability of giving explanations of their predictive results to humans explicitly. This drawback restricts the widespread use of the ANNs for critical domains such as healthcare and criminal justice . In a recent study, Rudin  has highlighted that there is a high demand for interpretable models to substitute black-box models in assisting decision-makers in areas with the requirement of high safety and trust.
Bouraoui, Zied, Cornuéjols, Antoine, Denœux, Thierry, Destercke, Sébastien, Dubois, Didier, Guillaume, Romain, Marques-Silva, João, Mengin, Jérôme, Prade, Henri, Schockaert, Steven, Serrurier, Mathieu, Vrain, Christel
This paper proposes a tentative and original survey of meeting points between Knowledge Representation and Reasoning (KRR) and Machine Learning (ML), two areas which have been developing quite separately in the last three decades. Some common concerns are identified and discussed such as the types of used representation, the roles of knowledge and data, the lack or the excess of information, or the need for explanations and causal understanding. Then some methodologies combining reasoning and learning are reviewed (such as inductive logic programming, neuro-symbolic reasoning, formal concept analysis, rule-based representations and ML, uncertainty in ML, or case-based reasoning and analogical reasoning), before discussing examples of synergies between KRR and ML (including topics such as belief functions on regression, EM algorithm versus revision, the semantic description of vector representations, the combination of deep learning with high level inference, knowledge graph completion, declarative frameworks for data mining, or preferences and recommendation). This paper is the first step of a work in progress aiming at a better mutual understanding of research in KRR and ML, and how they could cooperate.