"A semantic network or net is a graphic notation for representing knowledge in patterns of interconnected nodes and arcs. Computer implementations of semantic networks were first developed for artificial intelligence and machine translation, but earlier versions have long been used in philosophy, psychology, and linguistics. What is common to all semantic networks is a declarative graphic representation that can be used either to represent knowledge or to support automated systems for reasoning about knowledge. Some versions are highly informal, but other versions are formally defined systems of logic. ...The oldest known semantic network was drawn in the 3rd century AD by the Greek philosopher Porphyry in his commentary on Aristotle's categories."
– from John F. Sowa, Semantic Networks, revised and extended version of article originally written for the Encyclopedia of Artificial Intelligence, edited by Stuart C. Shapiro, Wiley, 1987, second edition, 1992.
Knowledge graphs have been around for almost half a century – as the term was first coined in 1972! For a long time, they simply languished in the academic world until Google announced their knowledge graph in 2012. Since then, knowledge graphs have evolved quite dramatically, and now there is no turning back. The last 10 years have seen a meteoric rise in machine learning (ML) and artificial intelligence (AI). Because of their ability to drive intelligence into data and add context, knowledge graphs are used to make ML and AI more reliable, robust, trustworthy, and explainable.
Knowledge graphs have emerged as a widely adopted medium for storing relational data, making methods for automatically reasoning with them highly desirable. In this paper, we present a novel approach for inducing a hierarchy of subject clusters, building upon our earlier work done in taxonomy induction. Our method first constructs a tag hierarchy before assigning subjects to clusters on this hierarchy. We quantitatively demonstrate our method's ability to induce a coherent cluster hierarchy on three real-world datasets.
Computing latent representations for graph-structured data is an ubiquitous learning task in many industrial and academic applications ranging from molecule synthetization to social network analysis and recommender systems. Knowledge graphs are among the most popular and widely used data representations related to the Semantic Web. Next to structuring factual knowledge in a machine-readable format, knowledge graphs serve as the backbone of many artificial intelligence applications and allow the ingestion of context information into various learning algorithms. Graph neural networks attempt to encode graph structures in low-dimensional vector spaces via a message passing heuristic between neighboring nodes. Over the recent years, a multitude of different graph neural network architectures demonstrated ground-breaking performances in many learning tasks. In this work, we propose a strategy to map deep graph learning architectures for knowledge graph reasoning to neuromorphic architectures. Based on the insight that randomly initialized and untrained (i.e., frozen) graph neural networks are able to preserve local graph structures, we compose a frozen neural network with shallow knowledge graph embedding models. We experimentally show that already on conventional computing hardware, this leads to a significant speedup and memory reduction while maintaining a competitive performance level. Moreover, we extend the frozen architecture to spiking neural networks, introducing a novel, event-based and highly sparse knowledge graph embedding algorithm that is suitable for implementation in neuromorphic hardware.
Organizations around the world face an array of risks impacting their operations globally. It is imperative to have a robust risk identification process to detect and evaluate the impact of potential risks before they materialize. Given the nature of the task and the current requirements of deep subject matter expertise, most organizations utilize a heavily manual process. In our work, we develop an automated system that (a) continuously monitors global news, (b) is able to autonomously identify and characterize risks, (c) is able to determine the proximity of reaching triggers to determine the distance from the manifestation of the risk impact and (d) identifies organization's operational areas that may be most impacted by the risk. Other contributions also include: (a) a knowledge graph representation of risks and (b) relevant news matching to risks identified by the organization utilizing a neural embedding model to match the textual description of a given risk with multi-lingual news.
Knowledge graph completion is the task of inferring missing facts based on existing data in a knowledge graph. Temporal knowledge graph completion (TKGC) is an extension of this task to temporal knowledge graphs, where each fact is additionally associated with a time stamp. Current approaches for TKGC primarily build on existing embedding models which are developed for (static) knowledge graph completion, and extend these models to incorporate time, where the idea is to learn latent representations for entities, relations, and timestamps and then use the learned representations to predict missing facts at various time steps. In this paper, we propose BoxTE, a box embedding model for TKGC, building on the static knowledge graph embedding model BoxE. We show that BoxTE is fully expressive, and possesses strong inductive capacity in the temporal setting. We then empirically evaluate our model and show that it achieves state-of-the-art results on several TKGC benchmarks.
With the recent surge in social applications relying on knowledge graphs, the need for techniques to ensure fairness in KG based methods is becoming increasingly evident. Previous works have demonstrated that KGs are prone to various social biases, and have proposed multiple methods for debiasing them. However, in such studies, the focus has been on debiasing techniques, while the relations to be debiased are specified manually by the user. As manual specification is itself susceptible to human cognitive bias, there is a need for a system capable of quantifying and exposing biases, that can support more informed decisions on what to debias. To address this gap in the literature, we describe a framework for identifying biases present in knowledge graph embeddings, based on numerical bias metrics. We illustrate the framework with three different bias measures on the task of profession prediction, and it can be flexibly extended to further bias definitions and applications. The relations flagged as biased can then be handed to decision makers for judgement upon subsequent debiasing.
From the 4,300 abstracts, there were 1,188, 1,309, 822, 322, and 40 unique entities (concepts) for Disease, Chemical, Gene, Species, and SNP&Mutation, respectively. These biomedical concepts form 21,521, 8,048, 5,042, and 161 unique relationships: Disease-Chemical, Disease-Gene, Disease-species, and Disease-SNP&Mutation respectively. The most frequent Disease-Concept pairs can be seen in Table 1. We noticed that polyphenols, which are usually found in fruits and vegetables, have high co-existence with multiple neurodegenerative diseases. Polyphenols are well known for their function to reduce the risk of neurodegenerative disease .
Live streaming is becoming an increasingly popular trend of sales in E-commerce. The core of live-streaming sales is to encourage customers to purchase in an online broadcasting room. To enable customers to better understand a product without jumping out, we propose AliMe MKG, a multi-modal knowledge graph that aims at providing a cognitive profile for products, through which customers are able to seek information about and understand a product. Based on the MKG, we build an online live assistant that highlights product search, product exhibition and question answering, allowing customers to skim over item list, view item details, and ask item-related questions. Our system has been launched online in the Taobao app, and currently serves hundreds of thousands of customers per day.
To date, there are no effective treatments for most neurodegenerative diseases. However, certain foods may be associated with these diseases and bring an opportunity to prevent or delay neurodegenerative progression. Our objective is to construct a knowledge graph for neurodegenerative diseases using literature mining to study their relations with diet. We collected biomedical annotations (Disease, Chemical, Gene, Species, SNP&Mutation) in the abstracts from 4,300 publications relevant to both neurodegenerative diseases and diet using PubTator, an NIH-supported tool that can extract biomedical concepts from literature. A knowledge graph was created from these annotations. Graph embeddings were then trained with the node2vec algorithm to support potential concept clustering and similar concept identification. We found several food-related species and chemicals that might come from diet and have an impact on neurodegenerative diseases.
Temporal knowledge graph (TKG) reasoning is a crucial task that has gained increasing research interest in recent years. Most existing methods focus on reasoning at past timestamps to complete the missing facts, and there are only a few works of reasoning on known TKGs to forecast future facts. Compared with the completion task, the forecasting task is more difficult that faces two main challenges: (1) how to effectively model the time information to handle future timestamps? (2) how to make inductive inference to handle previously unseen entities that emerge over time? To address these challenges, we propose the first reinforcement learning method for forecasting. Specifically, the agent travels on historical knowledge graph snapshots to search for the answer. Our method defines a relative time encoding function to capture the timespan information, and we design a novel time-shaped reward based on Dirichlet distribution to guide the model learning. Furthermore, we propose a novel representation method for unseen entities to improve the inductive inference ability of the model. We evaluate our method for this link prediction task at future timestamps. Extensive experiments on four benchmark datasets demonstrate substantial performance improvement meanwhile with higher explainability, less calculation, and fewer parameters when compared with existing state-of-the-art methods.