Semantic Networks


Extracting knowledge from knowledge graphs using Facebook Pytorch BigGraph.

#artificialintelligence

Machine learning gives us the ability to train a model, which can convert data rows into labels in such a way that similar data rows are mapped to similar or the same label. For example, we are building SPAM filter for email messages. We have a lot of email messages, some of which are marked as SPAM and some as INBOX. We can build a model, which learns to identify the SPAM messages. The messages to be marked as SPAM will be in some way similar to those, which are already marked as SPAM. The concept of similarity is vitally important for machine learning. In the real world, the concept of similarity is very specific to the subject matter and it depends on our knowledge.


Enhancement of Power Equipment Management Using Knowledge Graph

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

Accurate retrieval of the power equipment information plays an important role in guiding the full-lifecycle management of power system assets. Because of data duplication, database decentralization, weak data relations, and sluggish data updates, the power asset management system eager to adopt a new strategy to avoid the information losses, bias, and improve the data storage efficiency and extraction process. Knowledge graph has been widely developed in large part owing to its schema-less nature. It enables the knowledge graph to grow seamlessly and allows new relations addition and entities insertion when needed. This study proposes an approach for constructing power equipment knowledge graph by merging existing multi-source heterogeneous power equipment related data. A graph-search method to illustrate exhaustive results to the desired information based on the constructed knowledge graph is proposed. A case of a 500 kV station example is then demonstrated to show relevant search results and to explain that the knowledge graph can improve the efficiency of power equipment management.


Soft Marginal TransE for Scholarly Knowledge Graph Completion

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

Knowledge graphs (KGs), i.e. representation of information as a semantic graph, provide a significant test bed for many tasks including question answering, recommendation, and link prediction. Various amount of scholarly metadata have been made vailable as knowledge graphs from the diversity of data providers and agents. However, these high-quantities of data remain far from quality criteria in terms of completeness while growing at a rapid pace. Most of the attempts in completing such KGs are following traditional data digitization, harvesting and collaborative curation approaches. Whereas, advanced AI-related approaches such as embedding models - specifically designed for such tasks - are usually evaluated for standard benchmarks such as Freebase and Wordnet. The tailored nature of such datasets prevents those approaches to shed the lights on more accurate discoveries. Application of such models on domain-specific KGs takes advantage of enriched meta-data and provides accurate results where the underlying domain can enormously benefit. In this work, the TransE embedding model is reconciled for a specific link prediction task on scholarly metadata. The results show a significant shift in the accuracy and performance evaluation of the model on a dataset with scholarly metadata. The newly proposed version of TransE obtains 99.9% for link prediction task while original TransE gets 95%. In terms of accuracy and Hit@10, TransE outperforms other embedding models such as ComplEx, TransH and TransR experimented over scholarly knowledge graphs


Towards Data Poisoning Attack against Knowledge Graph Embedding

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

Knowledge graph embedding (KGE) is a technique for learning continuous embeddings for entities and relations in the knowledge graph.Due to its benefit to a variety of downstream tasks such as knowledge graph completion, question answering and recommendation, KGE has gained significant attention recently. Despite its effectiveness in a benign environment, KGE' robustness to adversarial attacks is not well-studied. Existing attack methods on graph data cannot be directly applied to attack the embeddings of knowledge graph due to its heterogeneity. To fill this gap, we propose a collection of data poisoning attack strategies, which can effectively manipulate the plausibility of arbitrary targeted facts in a knowledge graph by adding or deleting facts on the graph. The effectiveness and efficiency of the proposed attack strategies are verified by extensive evaluations on two widely-used benchmarks.


Recurrent Event Network for Reasoning over Temporal Knowledge Graphs

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

Recently, there has been a surge of interest in learning representation of graph-structured data that are dynamically evolving. However, current dynamic graph learning methods lack a principled way in modeling temporal, multi-relational, and concurrent interactions between nodes---a limitation that is especially problematic for the task of temporal knowledge graph reasoning, where the goal is to predict unseen entity relationships (i.e., events) over time. Here we present Recurrent Event Network (\method)---an architecture for modeling complex event sequences---which consists of a recurrent event encoder and a neighborhood aggregator. The event encoder employs a RNN to capture (subject, relation)-specific patterns from historical entity interactions; while the neighborhood aggregator summarizes concurrent interactions within each time stamp. An output layer is designed for predicting forthcoming, multi-relational events. Experiments on temporal link prediction over two knowledge graph datasets demonstrate the effectiveness of our method, especially on multi-step inference over time.


Domain Representation for Knowledge Graph Embedding

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

Embedding entities and relations into a continuous multi-dimensional vector space have become the dominant method for knowledge graph embedding in representation learning. However, most existing models ignore to represent hierarchical knowledge, such as the similarities and dissimilarities of entities in one domain. We proposed to learn a Domain Representations over existing knowledge graph embedding models, such that entities that have similar attributes are organized into the same domain. Such hierarchical knowledge of domains can give further evidence in link prediction. Experimental results show that domain embeddings give a significant improvement over the most recent state-of-art baseline knowledge graph embedding models.


Graph Pattern Entity Ranking Model for Knowledge Graph Completion

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

Knowledge graphs have evolved rapidly in recent years and their usefulness has been demonstrated in many artificial intelligence tasks. However, knowledge graphs often have lots of missing facts. To solve this problem, many knowledge graph embedding models have been developed to populate knowledge graphs and these have shown outstanding performance. However, knowledge graph embedding models are so-called black boxes, and the user does not know how the information in a knowledge graph is processed and the models can be difficult to interpret. In this paper, we utilize graph patterns in a knowledge graph to overcome such problems. Our proposed model, the {\it graph pattern entity ranking model} (GRank), constructs an entity ranking system for each graph pattern and evaluates them using a ranking measure. By doing so, we can find graph patterns which are useful for predicting facts. Then, we perform link prediction tasks on standard datasets to evaluate our GRank method. We show that our approach outperforms other state-of-the-art approaches such as ComplEx and TorusE for standard metrics such as HITS@{\it n} and MRR. Moreover, our model is easily interpretable because the output facts are described by graph patterns.


Analyzing Knowledge Graph Embedding Methods from a Multi-Embedding Interaction Perspective

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

Knowledge graph is a popular format for representing knowledge, with many applications to semantic search engines, question-answering systems, and recommender systems. Real-world knowledge graphs are usually incomplete, so knowledge graph embedding methods, such as Canonical decomposition/Parallel factorization (CP), DistMult, and ComplEx, have been proposed to address this issue. These methods represent entities and relations as embedding vectors in semantic space and predict the links between them. The embedding vectors themselves contain rich semantic information and can be used in other applications such as data analysis. However, mechanisms in these models and the embedding vectors themselves vary greatly, making it difficult to understand and compare them. Given this lack of understanding, we risk using them ineffectively or incorrectly, particularly for complicated models, such as CP, with two role-based embedding vectors, or the state-of-the-art ComplEx model, with complex-valued embedding vectors. In this paper, we propose a multi-embedding interaction mechanism as a new approach to uniting and generalizing these models. We derive them theoretically via this mechanism and provide empirical analyses and comparisons between them. We also propose a new multi-embedding model based on quaternion algebra and show that it achieves promising results using popular benchmarks.


Expert System enhances knowledge graphs and NLP in latest update

KMWorld.com RSS Feeds : All Articles

Expert System is making enhancements to Cogito, its Artificial Intelligence platform that understands textual information and automatically processes natural language, delivering key updates in the areas of knowledge graphs, machine learning, and RPA. Cogito 14.4 enables users to more easily customize its Knowledge Graph of approximately 350,000 concepts connected by 2.8 Million relationships and lets them import targeted knowledge from any sources (such as company repositories Wikipedia or Geonames) in only a few clicks, enabling the platform to resolve references to real-world entities (such as people, companies, locations) and to link them to knowledge repositories by using standardized identifiers. Cogito 14.4 also extends its Natural Language Processing (NLP) extraction pipeline with a new active learning workflow that accelerates machine-learning-based analytics projects. Through an intuitive web application, Cogito 14.4's active learning workflow enables end-users to visualize the quality of extraction and provide feedback to the engine, which iteratively retrains the engine to reach the user's quality goals, thus reducing the amount of manual annotation needed Cogito 14.4 includes a Robotic Process Automation (RPA) connector that extends the use of RPA bots into process automation leveraging knowledge (and not only structured data) as well as requiring human-like judgement. The Cogito RPA Connector leverages deep contextual understanding to extract precise data from unstructured business documents.


Salesforce Research: Knowledge graphs and machine learning to power Einstein

ZDNet

A super geeky topic, which could have super important repercussions in the real world. That description could very well fit anything from cold fusion to knowledge graphs, so a bit of unpacking is in order. If you're into science, chances are you know arXiv.org. In other words, it's where cutting edge research often appears first. Some months back, a publication from researchers from Salesforce appeared in arXiv, titled "Multi-Hop Knowledge Graph Reasoning with Reward Shaping."