Semantic Networks


Knowledge Graphs And Machine Learning -- The Future Of AI Analytics?

#artificialintelligence

The unprecedented explosion in the amount of information we are generating and collecting, thanks to the arrival of the internet and the always-online society, powers all the incredible advances we see today in the field of artificial intelligence (AI) and Big Data. With this in mind, a great deal of thought and research has gone into working out the best way to store and organize information during the digital age. The relational database model was developed in the 1970s and organizes data into tables consisting of rows and columns – meaning the relationship between different data points can be determined at a glance. This worked very well in the early days of business computing, where information volumes grew slowly. For more complicated operations, however – such as establishing a relationship between data points stored in many different tables - the necessary operations quickly become complex, slow and cumbersome.


Knowledge Graphs And Machine Learning -- The Future Of AI Analytics?

#artificialintelligence

The unprecedented explosion in the amount of information we are generating and collecting, thanks to the arrival of the internet and the always-online society, powers all the incredible advances we see today in the field of artificial intelligence (AI) and Big Data. With this in mind, a great deal of thought and research has gone into working out the best way to store and organize information during the digital age. The relational database model was developed in the 1970s and organizes data into tables consisting of rows and columns – meaning the relationship between different data points can be determined at a glance. This worked very well in the early days of business computing, where information volumes grew slowly. For more complicated operations, however – such as establishing a relationship between data points stored in many different tables - the necessary operations quickly become complex, slow and cumbersome.


Pykg2vec: A Python Library for Knowledge Graph Embedding

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

Pykg2vec is an open-source Python library for learning the representations of the entities and relations in knowledge graphs. Pykg2vec's flexible and modular software architecture currently implements 16 state-of-the-art knowledge graph embedding algorithms, and is designed to easily incorporate new algorithms. The goal of pykg2vec is to provide a practical and educational platform to accelerate research in knowledge graph representation learning. Pykg2vec is built on top of TensorFlow and Python's multiprocessing framework and provides modules for batch generation, Bayesian hyperparameter optimization, mean rank evaluation, embedding, and result visualization. Pykg2vec is released under the MIT License and is also available in the Python Package Index (PyPI).


Relation Embedding with Dihedral Group in Knowledge Graph

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

Link prediction is critical for the application of incomplete knowledge graph (KG) in the downstream tasks. As a family of effective approaches for link predictions, embedding methods try to learn low-rank representations for both entities and relations such that the bilinear form defined therein is a well-behaved scoring function. Despite of their successful performances, existing bilinear forms overlook the modeling of relation compositions, resulting in lacks of interpretability for reasoning on KG. To fulfill this gap, we propose a new model called DihEdral, named after dihedral symmetry group. This new model learns knowledge graph embeddings that can capture relation compositions by nature. Furthermore, our approach models the relation embeddings parametrized by discrete values, thereby decrease the solution space drastically. Our experiments show that DihEdral is able to capture all desired properties such as (skew-) symmetry, inversion and (non-) Abelian composition, and outperforms existing bilinear form based approach and is comparable to or better than deep learning models such as ConvE.


Knowledge Hypergraphs: Extending Knowledge Graphs Beyond Binary Relations

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

Knowledge graphs store facts using relations between pairs of entities. In this work, we address the question of link prediction in knowledge bases where each relation is defined on any number of entities. We represent facts in a knowledge hypergraph: a knowledge graph where relations are defined on two or more entities. While there exist techniques (such as reification) that convert the non-binary relations of a knowledge hypergraph into binary ones, current embedding-based methods for knowledge graph completion do not work well out of the box for knowledge graphs obtained through these techniques. Thus we introduce HypE, a convolution-based embedding method for knowledge hypergraph completion. We also develop public benchmarks and baselines for our task and show experimentally that HypE is more effective than proposed baselines and existing methods.


A Knowledge Graph-based Approach for Exploring the U.S. Opioid Epidemic

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

The United States is in the midst of an opioid epidemic with recent estimates indicating that more than 130 people die every day due to drug overdose. The over-prescription and addiction to opioid painkillers, heroin, and synthetic opioids, has led to a public health crisis and created a huge social and economic burden. Statistical learning methods that use data from multiple clinical centers across the US to detect opioid over-prescribing trends and predict possible opioid misuse are required. However, the semantic heterogeneity in the representation of clinical data across different centers makes the development and evaluation of such methods difficult and non-trivial. We create the Opioid Drug Knowledge Graph (ODKG) -- a network of opioid-related drugs, active ingredients, formulations, combinations, and brand names. We use the ODKG to normalize drug strings in a clinical data warehouse consisting of patient data from over 400 healthcare facilities in 42 different states. We showcase the use of ODKG to generate summary statistics of opioid prescription trends across US regions. These methods and resources can aid the development of advanced and scalable models to monitor the opioid epidemic and to detect illicit opioid misuse behavior. Our work is relevant to policymakers and pain researchers who wish to systematically assess factors that contribute to opioid over-prescribing and iatrogenic opioid addiction in the US.


Knowledge Graph Embedding Bi-Vector Models for Symmetric Relation

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

Knowledge graph embedding (KGE) models have been proposed to improve the performance of knowledge graph reasoning. However, there is a general phenomenon in most of KGEs, as the training progresses, the symmetric relations tend to zero vector, if the symmetric triples ratio is high enough in the dataset. This phenomenon causes subsequent tasks, e.g. link prediction etc., of symmetric relations to fail. The root cause of the problem is that KGEs do not utilize the semantic information of symmetric relations. We propose KGE bi-vector models, which represent the symmetric relations as vector pair, significantly increasing the processing capability of the symmetry relations. We generate the benchmark datasets based on FB15k and WN18 by completing the symmetric relation triples to verify models. The experiment results of our models clearly affirm the effectiveness and superiority of our models against baseline.


Extracting knowledge from knowledge graphs using Facebook Pytorch BigGraph.

#artificialintelligence

Machine learning gives us the ability to train a model, which can convert data rows into labels in such a way that similar data rows are mapped to similar or the same label. For example, we are building SPAM filter for email messages. We have a lot of email messages, some of which are marked as SPAM and some as INBOX. We can build a model, which learns to identify the SPAM messages. The messages to be marked as SPAM will be in some way similar to those, which are already marked as SPAM. The concept of similarity is vitally important for machine learning. In the real world, the concept of similarity is very specific to the subject matter and it depends on our knowledge.


Enhancement of Power Equipment Management Using Knowledge Graph

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

Accurate retrieval of the power equipment information plays an important role in guiding the full-lifecycle management of power system assets. Because of data duplication, database decentralization, weak data relations, and sluggish data updates, the power asset management system eager to adopt a new strategy to avoid the information losses, bias, and improve the data storage efficiency and extraction process. Knowledge graph has been widely developed in large part owing to its schema-less nature. It enables the knowledge graph to grow seamlessly and allows new relations addition and entities insertion when needed. This study proposes an approach for constructing power equipment knowledge graph by merging existing multi-source heterogeneous power equipment related data. A graph-search method to illustrate exhaustive results to the desired information based on the constructed knowledge graph is proposed. A case of a 500 kV station example is then demonstrated to show relevant search results and to explain that the knowledge graph can improve the efficiency of power equipment management.


Soft Marginal TransE for Scholarly Knowledge Graph Completion

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

Knowledge graphs (KGs), i.e. representation of information as a semantic graph, provide a significant test bed for many tasks including question answering, recommendation, and link prediction. Various amount of scholarly metadata have been made vailable as knowledge graphs from the diversity of data providers and agents. However, these high-quantities of data remain far from quality criteria in terms of completeness while growing at a rapid pace. Most of the attempts in completing such KGs are following traditional data digitization, harvesting and collaborative curation approaches. Whereas, advanced AI-related approaches such as embedding models - specifically designed for such tasks - are usually evaluated for standard benchmarks such as Freebase and Wordnet. The tailored nature of such datasets prevents those approaches to shed the lights on more accurate discoveries. Application of such models on domain-specific KGs takes advantage of enriched meta-data and provides accurate results where the underlying domain can enormously benefit. In this work, the TransE embedding model is reconciled for a specific link prediction task on scholarly metadata. The results show a significant shift in the accuracy and performance evaluation of the model on a dataset with scholarly metadata. The newly proposed version of TransE obtains 99.9% for link prediction task while original TransE gets 95%. In terms of accuracy and Hit@10, TransE outperforms other embedding models such as ComplEx, TransH and TransR experimented over scholarly knowledge graphs