"A semantic network or net is a graphic notation for representing knowledge in patterns of interconnected nodes and arcs. Computer implementations of semantic networks were first developed for artificial intelligence and machine translation, but earlier versions have long been used in philosophy, psychology, and linguistics. What is common to all semantic networks is a declarative graphic representation that can be used either to represent knowledge or to support automated systems for reasoning about knowledge. Some versions are highly informal, but other versions are formally defined systems of logic. ...The oldest known semantic network was drawn in the 3rd century AD by the Greek philosopher Porphyry in his commentary on Aristotle's categories."
– from John F. Sowa, Semantic Networks, revised and extended version of article originally written for the Encyclopedia of Artificial Intelligence, edited by Stuart C. Shapiro, Wiley, 1987, second edition, 1992.
Last year, we identified blockchain, cloud, open-source, artificial intelligence, and knowledge graphs as the five key technological drivers for the 2020s. Although we did not anticipate the kind of year that 2020 would turn out to be, it looks like our predictions may not have been entirely off track. Let's pick up from where we left off, retracing developments in key technologies for the 2020s: Artificial intelligence and knowledge graphs, plus an honorable mention to COVID-19-related technological developments. This TechRepublic Premium ebook compiles the latest on cancelled conferences, cybersecurity attacks, remote work tips, and the impact this pandemic is having on the tech industry. In our opener for the 2020s, we laid the groundwork to evaluate the array of technologies under the umbrella term "artificial intelligence."
Knowledge graphs in manufacturing and production aim to make production lines more efficient and flexible with higher quality output. This makes knowledge graphs attractive for companies to reach Industry 4.0 goals. However, existing research in the field is quite preliminary, and more research effort on analyzing how knowledge graphs can be applied in the field of manufacturing and production is needed. Therefore, we have conducted a systematic literature review as an attempt to characterize the state-of-the-art in this field, i.e., by identifying exiting research and by identifying gaps and opportunities for further research. To do that, we have focused on finding the primary studies in the existing literature, which were classified and analyzed according to four criteria: bibliometric key facts, research type facets, knowledge graph characteristics, and application scenarios. Besides, an evaluation of the primary studies has also been carried out to gain deeper insights in terms of methodology, empirical evidence, and relevance. As a result, we can offer a complete picture of the domain, which includes such interesting aspects as the fact that knowledge fusion is currently the main use case for knowledge graphs, that empirical research and industrial application are still missing to a large extent, that graph embeddings are not fully exploited, and that technical literature is fast-growing but seems to be still far from its peak.
Adverse Drug Reactions (ADRs) are characterized within randomized clinical trials and postmarketing pharmacovigilance, but their molecular mechanism remains unknown in most cases. Aside from clinical trials, many elements of knowledge about drug ingredients are available in open-access knowledge graphs. In addition, drug classifications that label drugs as either causative or not for several ADRs, have been established. We propose to mine knowledge graphs for identifying biomolecular features that may enable reproducing automatically expert classifications that distinguish drug causative or not for a given type of ADR. In an explainable AI perspective, we explore simple classification techniques such as Decision Trees and Classification Rules because they provide human-readable models, which explain the classification itself, but may also provide elements of explanation for molecular mechanisms behind ADRs. In summary, we mine a knowledge graph for features; we train classifiers at distinguishing, drugs associated or not with ADRs; we isolate features that are both efficient in reproducing expert classifications and interpretable by experts (i.e., Gene Ontology terms, drug targets, or pathway names); and we manually evaluate how they may be explanatory. Extracted features reproduce with a good fidelity classifications of drugs causative or not for DILI and SCAR. Experts fully agreed that 73% and 38% of the most discriminative features are possibly explanatory for DILI and SCAR, respectively; and partially agreed (2/3) for 90% and 77% of them. Knowledge graphs provide diverse features to enable simple and explainable models to distinguish between drugs that are causative or not for ADRs. In addition to explaining classifications, most discriminative features appear to be good candidates for investigating ADR mechanisms further.
Large knowledge graphs often grow to store temporal facts that model the dynamic relations or interactions of entities along the timeline. Since such temporal knowledge graphs often suffer from incompleteness, it is important to develop time-aware representation learning models that help to infer the missing temporal facts. While the temporal facts are typically evolving, it is observed that many facts often show a repeated pattern along the timeline, such as economic crises and diplomatic activities. This observation indicates that a model could potentially learn much from the known facts appeared in history. To this end, we propose a new representation learning model for temporal knowledge graphs, namely CyGNet, based on a novel timeaware copy-generation mechanism. CyGNet is not only able to predict future facts from the whole entity vocabulary, but also capable of identifying facts with repetition and accordingly predicting such future facts with reference to the known facts in the past. We evaluate the proposed method on the knowledge graph completion task using five benchmark datasets. Extensive experiments demonstrate the effectiveness of CyGNet for predicting future facts with repetition as well as de novo fact prediction.
Connect internal and external datasets and pipelines with a distributed Graph Database - UnitedHealth Group is connecting 200 sources to deliver a real-time customer 360 to improve quality of care for 50 million members and deliver call center efficiencies. Xandr (part of AT&T) is connecting multiple data pipelines to build an identity graph for entity resolution to power the next-generation AdTech platform.
Most researches for knowledge graph completion learn representations of entities and relations to predict missing links in incomplete knowledge graphs. However, these methods fail to take full advantage of both the contextual information of entity and relation. Here, we extract contexts of entities and relations from the triplets which they compose. We propose a model named AggrE, which conducts efficient aggregations respectively on entity context and relation context in multi-hops, and learns context-enhanced entity and relation embeddings for knowledge graph completion. The experiment results show that AggrE is competitive to existing models.
Entities may have complex interactions in a knowledge graph (KG), such as multi-step relationships, which can be viewed as graph contextual information of the entities. Traditional knowledge representation learning (KRL) methods usually treat a single triple as a training unit, and neglect most of the graph contextual information exists in the topological structure of KGs. In this study, we propose a Path-based Pre-training model to learn Knowledge Embeddings, called PPKE, which aims to integrate more graph contextual information between entities into the KRL model. Experiments demonstrate that our model achieves state-of-the-art results on several benchmark datasets for link prediction and relation prediction tasks, indicating that our model provides a feasible way to take advantage of graph contextual information in KGs.
Free Coupon Discount - Knowledge Graph solution development using TigerGraph, Knowledge Graph Solutions Created by Neena Sathi Preview this Course GET COUPON CODE You will be able to understand and document the use case for knowledge graph solution You will be able to Design a Knowledge Graph solution You will be able to Design / extract data from Knowledge Graph data sources. You will be able to Design / Build key knowledge graph solution components and analytics Finally, You will be able to Prototype a graph analytics experience and document your understanding on Knowledge Graph Insights using a "Rapid Prototyping of Knowledge Graph Solutions using TigerGraph" course will help you strategize knowledge graph use cases and help you build or prototype a use case for your knowledge graph engagement. This course includes - How to define Graph Use Case - How to set up Sandbox using TigerGraph for your Graph use case - How to develop and execute structured graph queries - How to define elastic or higher level graph representation - Finally how to connect your graph solution with other solution components using Python. Who this course is for: Management, strategy and business analyst professionals Architects, technical leads and system analysts from IT organization Senior year undergraduate and graduate students in Business, Analytics, and IT Vendors, consultants and service providers for Graph Analytics 100% Off Udemy Coupon . You will be able to understand and document the use case for knowledge graph solution You will be able to Design a Knowledge Graph solution You will be able to Design / extract data from Knowledge Graph data sources.
Research on notable accomplishments and important events in the life of people of public interest usually requires close reading of long encyclopedic or biographical sources, which is a tedious and time-consuming task. Whereas semantic reference sources, such as the EventKG knowledge graph, provide structured representations of relevant facts, they often include hundreds of events and temporal relations for particular entities. In this paper, we present EventKG+BT - a timeline generation system that creates concise and interactive spatio-temporal representations of biographies from a knowledge graph using distant supervision.
Having a comprehensive, high-quality dataset of road sign annotation is critical to the success of AI-based Road Sign Recognition (RSR) systems. In practice, annotators often face difficulties in learning road sign systems of different countries; hence, the tasks are often time-consuming and produce poor results. We propose a novel approach using knowledge graphs and a machine learning algorithm - variational prototyping-encoder (VPE) - to assist human annotators in classifying road signs effectively. Annotators can query the Road Sign Knowledge Graph using visual attributes and receive closest matching candidates suggested by the VPE model. The VPE model uses the candidates from the knowledge graph and a real sign image patch as inputs. We show that our knowledge graph approach can reduce sign search space by 98.9%. Furthermore, with VPE, our system can propose the correct single candidate for 75% of signs in the tested datasets, eliminating the human search effort entirely in those cases.