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Semantic Networks: Overviews


Mining Implicit Entity Preference from User-Item Interaction Data for Knowledge Graph Completion via Adversarial Learning

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

The task of Knowledge Graph Completion (KGC) aims to automatically infer the missing fact information in Knowledge Graph (KG). In this paper, we take a new perspective that aims to leverage rich user-item interaction data (user interaction data for short) for improving the KGC task. Our work is inspired by the observation that many KG entities correspond to online items in application systems. However, the two kinds of data sources have very different intrinsic characteristics, and it is likely to hurt the original performance using simple fusion strategy. To address this challenge, we propose a novel adversarial learning approach by leveraging user interaction data for the KGC task. Our generator is isolated from user interaction data, and serves to improve the performance of the discriminator. The discriminator takes the learned useful information from user interaction data as input, and gradually enhances the evaluation capacity in order to identify the fake samples generated by the generator. To discover implicit entity preference of users, we design an elaborate collaborative learning algorithms based on graph neural networks, which will be jointly optimized with the discriminator. Such an approach is effective to alleviate the issues about data heterogeneity and semantic complexity for the KGC task. Extensive experiments on three real-world datasets have demonstrated the effectiveness of our approach on the KGC task.


Personal Health Knowledge Graphs for Patients

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

They are represented by a predefined ontology that uses different classes and the relationships identified between these classes. Knowledge graphs confer the ability to search information efficiently, and can help find and utilize patterns in the data for improving clinical outcomes. A few examples of KGs include Googles Knowledge Graph 8, and Linked Open Data 10 sources such as DBpedia 9 . Publicly accessible knowledge graphs have been successfully operationalized to gather insights from medical data sets. However, they do not offer reasoning over observations of daily living (ODLs), which can inform preventative care of chronic health conditions such as diabetes, Alzheimer, and asthma.


A Benchmarking Study of Embedding-based Entity Alignment for Knowledge Graphs

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

Entity alignment seeks to find entities in different knowledge graphs (KGs) that refer to the same real-world object. Recent advancement in KG embedding impels the advent of embedding-based entity alignment, which encodes entities in a continuous embedding space and measures entity similarities based on the learned embeddings. In this paper, we conduct a comprehensive experimental study of this emerging field. This study surveys 23 recent embedding-based entity alignment approaches and categorizes them based on their techniques and characteristics. We further observe that current approaches use different datasets in evaluation, and the degree distributions of entities in these datasets are inconsistent with real KGs. Hence, we propose a new KG sampling algorithm, with which we generate a set of dedicated benchmark datasets with various heterogeneity and distributions for a realistic evaluation. This study also produces an open-source library, which includes 12 representative embedding-based entity alignment approaches. We extensively evaluate these approaches on the generated datasets, to understand their strengths and limitations. Additionally, for several directions that have not been explored in current approaches, we perform exploratory experiments and report our preliminary findings for future studies. The benchmark datasets, open-source library and experimental results are all accessible online and will be duly maintained.


Overview of the CCKS 2019 Knowledge Graph Evaluation Track: Entity, Relation, Event and QA

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

Knowledge graph models world knowledge as concepts, entities, and the relationships between them, which has been widely used in many real-world tasks. CCKS 2019 held an evaluation track with 6 tasks and attracted more than 1,600 teams. In this paper, we give an overview of the knowledge graph evaluation tract at CCKS 2019. By reviewing the task definition, successful methods, useful resources, good strategies and research challenges associated with each task in CCKS 2019, this paper can provide a helpful reference for developing knowledge graph applications and conducting future knowledge graph researches.


Knowledge Graphs and Knowledge Networks: The Story in Brief

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

Knowledge Graphs (KGs) represent real-world noisy raw information in a structured form, capturing relationships between entities. However, for dynamic real-world applications such as social networks, recommender systems, computational biology, relational knowledge representation has emerged as a challenging research problem where there is a need to represent the changing nodes, attributes, and edges over time. The evolution of search engine responses to user queries in the last few years is partly because of the role of KGs such as Google KG. KGs are significantly contributing to various AI applications from link prediction, entity relations prediction, node classification to recommendation and question answering systems. This article is an attempt to summarize the journey of KG for AI.


Knowledge graph based methods for record linkage

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

Nowadays, it is common in Historical Demography the use of individual-level data as a consequence of a predominant life-course approach for the understanding of the demographic behaviour, family transition, mobility, etc. Record linkage advance is key in these disciplines since it allows to increase the volume and the data complexity to be analyzed. However, current methods are constrained to link data coming from the same kind of sources. Knowledge graph are flexible semantic representations, which allow to encode data variability and semantic relations in a structured manner. In this paper we propose the knowledge graph use to tackle record linkage task. The proposed method, named {\bf WERL}, takes advantage of the main knowledge graph properties and learns embedding vectors to encode census information. These embeddings are properly weighted to maximize the record linkage performance. We have evaluated this method on benchmark data sets and we have compared it to related methods with stimulating and satisfactory results.


Knowledge Graphs on the Web -- an Overview

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

Knowledge Graphs are an emerging form of knowledge representation. While Google coined the term Knowledge Graph first and promoted it as a means to improve their search results, they are used in many applications today. In a knowledge graph, entities in the real world and/or a business domain (e.g., people, places, or events) are represented as nodes, which are connected by edges representing the relations between those entities. While companies such as Google, Microsoft, and Facebook have their own, non-public knowledge graphs, there is also a larger body of publicly available knowledge graphs, such as DBpedia or Wikidata. In this chapter, we provide an overview and comparison of those publicly available knowledge graphs, and give insights into their contents, size, coverage, and overlap.


Knowledge Graphs

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

In this paper we provide a comprehensive introduction to knowledge graphs, which have recently garnered significant attention from both industry and academia in scenarios that require exploiting diverse, dynamic, large-scale collections of data. After a general introduction, we motivate and contrast various graph-based data models and query languages that are used for knowledge graphs. We discuss the roles of schema, identity, and context in knowledge graphs. We explain how knowledge can be represented and extracted using a combination of deductive and inductive techniques. We summarise methods for the creation, enrichment, quality assessment, refinement, and publication of knowledge graphs. We provide an overview of prominent open knowledge graphs and enterprise knowledge graphs, their applications, and how they use the aforementioned techniques. We conclude with high-level future research directions for knowledge graphs.


An Evaluation of Knowledge Graph Embeddings for Autonomous Driving Data: Experience and Practice

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

The autonomous driving (AD) industry is exploring the use of knowledge graphs (KGs) to manage the vast amount of heterogeneous data generated from vehicular sensors. The various types of equipped sensors include video, LIDAR and RADAR. Scene understanding is an important topic in AD which requires consideration of various aspects of a scene, such as detected objects, events, time and location. Recent work on knowledge graph embeddings (KGEs) - an approach that facilitates neuro-symbolic fusion - has shown to improve the predictive performance of machine learning models. With the expectation that neuro-symbolic fusion through KGEs will improve scene understanding, this research explores the generation and evaluation of KGEs for autonomous driving data. We also present an investigation of the relationship between the level of informational detail in a KG and the quality of its derivative embeddings. By systematically evaluating KGEs along four dimensions -- i.e. quality metrics, KG informational detail, algorithms, and datasets -- we show that (1) higher levels of informational detail in KGs lead to higher quality embeddings, (2) type and relation semantics are better captured by the semantic transitional distance-based TransE algorithm, and (3) some metrics, such as coherence measure, may not be suitable for intrinsically evaluating KGEs in this domain. Additionally, we also present an (early) investigation of the usefulness of KGEs for two use-cases in the AD domain.


Error detection in Knowledge Graphs: Path Ranking, Embeddings or both?

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

This paper attempts to compare and combine different approaches for de-tecting errors in Knowledge Graphs. Knowledge Graphs constitute a mainstreamapproach for the representation of relational information on big heterogeneous data,however, they may contain a big amount of imputed noise when constructed auto-matically. To address this problem, different error detection methodologies have beenproposed, mainly focusing on path ranking and representation learning. This workpresents various mainstream approaches and proposes a novel hybrid and modularmethodology for the task. We compare these methods on two benchmarks and one real-world biomedical publications dataset, showcasing the potential of our approach anddrawing insights regarding the state-of-art in error detection in Knowledge Graphs