"A semantic network or net is a graphic notation for representing knowledge in patterns of interconnected nodes and arcs. Computer implementations of semantic networks were first developed for artificial intelligence and machine translation, but earlier versions have long been used in philosophy, psychology, and linguistics. What is common to all semantic networks is a declarative graphic representation that can be used either to represent knowledge or to support automated systems for reasoning about knowledge. Some versions are highly informal, but other versions are formally defined systems of logic. ...The oldest known semantic network was drawn in the 3rd century AD by the Greek philosopher Porphyry in his commentary on Aristotle's categories."
– from John F. Sowa, Semantic Networks, revised and extended version of article originally written for the Encyclopedia of Artificial Intelligence, edited by Stuart C. Shapiro, Wiley, 1987, second edition, 1992.
Encoding facts as representations of entities and binary relationships between them, as learned by knowledge graph representation models, is useful for various tasks, including predicting new facts, question answering, fact checking and information retrieval. The focus of this thesis is on (i) improving knowledge graph representation with the aim of tackling the link prediction task; and (ii) devising a theory on how semantics can be captured in the geometry of relation representations. Most knowledge graphs are very incomplete and manually adding new information is costly, which drives the development of methods which can automatically infer missing facts. The first contribution of this thesis is HypER, a convolutional model which simplifies and improves upon the link prediction performance of the existing convolutional state-of-the-art model ConvE and can be mathematically explained in terms of constrained tensor factorisation. The second contribution is TuckER, a relatively straightforward linear model, which, at the time of its introduction, obtained state-of-the-art link prediction performance across standard datasets. The third contribution is MuRP, first multi-relational graph representation model embedded in hyperbolic space. MuRP outperforms all existing models and its Euclidean counterpart MuRE in link prediction on hierarchical knowledge graph relations whilst requiring far fewer dimensions. Despite the development of a large number of knowledge graph representation models with gradually increasing predictive performance, relatively little is known of the latent structure they learn. We generalise recent theoretical understanding of how semantic relations of similarity, paraphrase and analogy are encoded in the geometric interactions of word embeddings to how more general relations, as found in knowledge graphs, can be encoded in their representations.
Destination prediction has been a critical topic in transportation research, and there are a large number of studies. However, almost all existing studies are based on high predictability data conditions while pay less attention to the data condition with low predictability, where the regularity of single individuals is not exposed. Based on a certain period of observation, there is a fact that individuals may choose destinations beyond observation, which we call "potential destinations". The number of potential destinations is very large and can't be ignored for the data condition with low predictability formed by short-term observation.To reveal the choice pattern of potential destination of individuals under the data condition with low predictability, we propose a global optimization method based on knowledge graph embedding. First, we joint the trip data of all individuals by constructing Trip Knowledge Graph(TKG). Next, we optimize the general algorithm of knowledge graph embedding for our data and task in training strategy and objective function, then implement it on TKG. It can achieve global optimization for association paths that exist between almost any two entities in TKG. On this basis, a method for potential destination prediction is proposed, giving the possible ranking of unobserved destinations for each individual. In addition, we improve the performance by fusing static statistical information that is not passed to TKG. Finally, we validate our method in a real-world dataset, and the prediction results are highly consistent with individuals' potential destination choice behaviour.
Recent approaches of computer vision utilize deep learning methods as they perform quite well if training and testing domains follow the same underlying data distribution. However, it has been shown that minor variations in the images that occur when using these methods in the real world can lead to unpredictable errors. Transfer learning is the area of machine learning that tries to prevent these errors. Especially, approaches that augment image data using auxiliary knowledge encoded in language embeddings or knowledge graphs (KGs) have achieved promising results in recent years. This survey focuses on visual transfer learning approaches using KGs. KGs can represent auxiliary knowledge either in an underlying graph-structured schema or in a vector-based knowledge graph embedding. Intending to enable the reader to solve visual transfer learning problems with the help of specific KG-DL configurations we start with a description of relevant modeling structures of a KG of various expressions, such as directed labeled graphs, hypergraphs, and hyper-relational graphs. We explain the notion of feature extractor, while specifically referring to visual and semantic features. We provide a broad overview of knowledge graph embedding methods and describe several joint training objectives suitable to combine them with high dimensional visual embeddings. The main section introduces four different categories on how a KG can be combined with a DL pipeline: 1) Knowledge Graph as a Reviewer; 2) Knowledge Graph as a Trainee; 3) Knowledge Graph as a Trainer; and 4) Knowledge Graph as a Peer. To help researchers find evaluation benchmarks, we provide an overview of generic KGs and a set of image processing datasets and benchmarks including various types of auxiliary knowledge. Last, we summarize related surveys and give an outlook about challenges and open issues for future research.
Aspect-based sentiment analysis (ABSA) is a fine-grained task of sentiment analysis. To better comprehend long complicated sentences and obtain accurate aspect-specific information, linguistic and commonsense knowledge are generally required in this task. However, most methods employ complicated and inefficient approaches to incorporate external knowledge, e.g., directly searching the graph nodes. Additionally, the complementarity between external knowledge and linguistic information has not been thoroughly studied. To this end, we propose a knowledge graph augmented network (KGAN), which aims to effectively incorporate external knowledge with explicitly syntactic and contextual information. In particular, KGAN captures the sentiment feature representations from multiple different perspectives, i.e., context-, syntax- and knowledge-based. First, KGAN learns the contextual and syntactic representations in parallel to fully extract the semantic features. Then, KGAN integrates the knowledge graphs into the embedding space, based on which the aspect-specific knowledge representations are further obtained via an attention mechanism. Last, we propose a hierarchical fusion module to complement these multiview representations in a local-to-global manner. Extensive experiments on three popular ABSA benchmarks demonstrate the effectiveness and robustness of our KGAN. Notably, with the help of the pretrained model of RoBERTa, KGAN achieves a new record of state-of-the-art performance.
Instead of the traditional Knowledge Graph Embedding (KGE) represents entities and Negative Sampling, we design a new loss function based on relations of knowledge graphs (KGs) in the semantic vector space, query sampling that can balance two important training targets, and has shown great potential in automatic KG completion and Alignment and Uniformity. Furthermore, we analyze the hardnessaware knowledge-driven tasks [15, 16, 31, 33]. Given a query having an ability of recent low-dimensional hyperbolic models and entity and the relation of a triple, a typical KGE model learns propose a lightweight hardness-aware activation mechanism, which embedding vectors by predicting the missing entity from the can help the KGE models focus on hard instances and speed up whole entity set . However, the existing KGE models have convergence. The experimental results show that in the limited limited practicality in real-world applications [19, 23]. To improve training time, HaLE can effectively improve the performance and the prediction accuracy, recent KGE models utilize complicated training speed of KGE models on five commonly-used datasets. The computational structures and high-dimensional vectors up to 500 or HaLE-trained models can obtain a high prediction accuracy after even 1,000 dimensions [7, 12, 22]. Training such high-dimensional training few minutes and are competitive compared to the state-ofthe-art models demands prohibitive training costs and storage space, yet models in both low-and high-dimensional conditions.
Besides entity-centric knowledge, usually organized as Knowledge Graph (KG), events are also an essential kind of knowledge in the world, which trigger the spring up of event-centric knowledge representation form like Event KG (EKG). It plays an increasingly important role in many machine learning and artificial intelligence applications, such as intelligent search, question-answering, recommendation, and text generation. This paper provides a comprehensive survey of EKG from history, ontology, instance, and application views. Specifically, to characterize EKG thoroughly, we focus on its history, definitions, schema induction, acquisition, related representative graphs/systems, and applications. The development processes and trends are studied therein. We further summarize perspective directions to facilitate future research on EKG.
Knowledge graphs (KGs) capture knowledge in the form of head--relation--tail triples and are a crucial component in many AI systems. There are two important reasoning tasks on KGs: (1) single-hop knowledge graph completion, which involves predicting individual links in the KG; and (2), multi-hop reasoning, where the goal is to predict which KG entities satisfy a given logical query. Embedding-based methods solve both tasks by first computing an embedding for each entity and relation, then using them to form predictions. However, existing scalable KG embedding frameworks only support single-hop knowledge graph completion and cannot be applied to the more challenging multi-hop reasoning task. Here we present Scalable Multi-hOp REasoning (SMORE), the first general framework for both single-hop and multi-hop reasoning in KGs. Using a single machine SMORE can perform multi-hop reasoning in Freebase KG (86M entities, 338M edges), which is 1,500x larger than previously considered KGs. The key to SMORE's runtime performance is a novel bidirectional rejection sampling that achieves a square root reduction of the complexity of online training data generation. Furthermore, SMORE exploits asynchronous scheduling, overlapping CPU-based data sampling, GPU-based embedding computation, and frequent CPU--GPU IO. SMORE increases throughput (i.e., training speed) over prior multi-hop KG frameworks by 2.2x with minimal GPU memory requirements (2GB for training 400-dim embeddings on 86M-node Freebase) and achieves near linear speed-up with the number of GPUs. Moreover, on the simpler single-hop knowledge graph completion task SMORE achieves comparable or even better runtime performance to state-of-the-art frameworks on both single GPU and multi-GPU settings.
Knowledge Graphs (KG) and associated Knowledge Graph Embedding (KGE) models have recently begun to be explored in the context of drug discovery and have the potential to assist in key challenges such as target identification. In the drug discovery domain, KGs can be employed as part of a process which can result in lab-based experiments being performed, or impact on other decisions, incurring significant time and financial costs and most importantly, ultimately influencing patient healthcare. For KGE models to have impact in this domain, a better understanding of not only of performance, but also the various factors which determine it, is required. In this study we investigate, over the course of many thousands of experiments, the predictive performance of five KGE models on two public drug discovery-oriented KGs. Our goal is not to focus on the best overall model or configuration, instead we take a deeper look at how performance can be affected by changes in the training setup, choice of hyperparameters, model parameter initialisation seed and different splits of the datasets. Our results highlight that these factors have significant impact on performance and can even affect the ranking of models. Indeed these factors should be reported along with model architectures to ensure complete reproducibility and fair comparisons of future work, and we argue this is critical for the acceptance of use, and impact of KGEs in a biomedical setting. To aid reproducibility of our own work, we release all experimentation code.
Drug discovery and development is an extremely complex process, with high attrition contributing to the costs of delivering new medicines to patients. Recently, various machine learning approaches have been proposed and investigated to help improve the effectiveness and speed of multiple stages of the drug discovery pipeline. Among these techniques, it is especially those using Knowledge Graphs that are proving to have considerable promise across a range of tasks, including drug repurposing, drug toxicity prediction and target gene-disease prioritisation. In such a knowledge graph-based representation of drug discovery domains, crucial elements including genes, diseases and drugs are represented as entities or vertices, whilst relationships or edges between them indicate some level of interaction. For example, an edge between a disease and drug entity might represent a successful clinical trial, or an edge between two drug entities could indicate a potentially harmful interaction. In order to construct high-quality and ultimately informative knowledge graphs however, suitable data and information is of course required. In this review, we detail publicly available primary data sources containing information suitable for use in constructing various drug discovery focused knowledge graphs. We aim to help guide machine learning and knowledge graph practitioners who are interested in applying new techniques to the drug discovery field, but who may be unfamiliar with the relevant data sources. Overall we hope this review will help motivate more machine learning researchers to explore combining knowledge graphs and machine learning to help solve key and emerging questions in the drug discovery domain.
Free Coupon Discount - Knowledge Graph solution development using TigerGraph, Knowledge Graph Solutions Created by Neena Sathi Preview this Course GET COUPON CODE You will be able to understand and document the use case for knowledge graph solution You will be able to Design a Knowledge Graph solution You will be able to Design / extract data from Knowledge Graph data sources. You will be able to Design / Build key knowledge graph solution components and analytics Finally, You will be able to Prototype a graph analytics experience and document your understanding on Knowledge Graph Insights using a "Rapid Prototyping of Knowledge Graph Solutions using TigerGraph" course will help you strategize knowledge graph use cases and help you build or prototype a use case for your knowledge graph engagement. This course includes - How to define Graph Use Case - How to set up Sandbox using TigerGraph for your Graph use case - How to develop and execute structured graph queries - How to define elastic or higher level graph representation - Finally how to connect your graph solution with other solution components using Python. Who this course is for: Management, strategy and business analyst professionals Architects, technical leads and system analysts from IT organization Senior year undergraduate and graduate students in Business, Analytics, and IT Vendors, consultants and service providers for Graph Analytics 100% Off Udemy Coupon . You will be able to understand and document the use case for knowledge graph solution You will be able to Design a Knowledge Graph solution You will be able to Design / extract data from Knowledge Graph data sources.