Dimensionality Reduction


Comprehensive Guide to 12 Dimensionality Reduction Techniques

#artificialintelligence

Have you ever worked on a dataset with more than a thousand features? I have, and let me tell you it's a very challenging task, especially if you don't know where to start! Having a high number of variables is both a boon and a curse. It's great that we have loads of data for analysis, but it is challenging due to size. It's not feasible to analyze each and every variable at a microscopic level. It might take us days or months to perform any meaningful analysis and we'll lose a ton of time and money for our business! Not to mention the amount of computational power this will take. We need a better way to deal with high dimensional data so that we can quickly extract patterns and insights from it. So how do we approach such a dataset?


Tensor-Train Parameterization for Ultra Dimensionality Reduction

arXiv.org Machine Learning

Locality preserving projections (LPP) are a classical dimensionality reduction method based on data graph information. However, LPP is still responsive to extreme outliers. LPP aiming for vectorial data may undermine data structural information when it is applied to multidimensional data. Besides, it assumes the dimension of data to be smaller than the number of instances, which is not suitable for high-dimensional data. For high-dimensional data analysis, the tensor-train decomposition is proved to be able to efficiently and effectively capture the spatial relations. Thus, we propose a tensor-train parameterization for ultra dimensionality reduction (TTPUDR) in which the traditional LPP mapping is tensorized in terms of tensor-trains and the LPP objective is replaced with the Frobenius norm to increase the robustness of the model. The manifold optimization technique is utilized to solve the new model. The performance of TTPUDR is assessed on classification problems and TTPUDR significantly outperforms the past methods and the several state-of-the-art methods.


Spectral Overlap and a Comparison of Parameter-Free, Dimensionality Reduction Quality Metrics

arXiv.org Machine Learning

Nonlinear dimensionality reduction methods are a popular tool for data scientists and researchers to visualize complex, high dimensional data. However, while these methods continue to improve and grow in number, it is often difficult to evaluate the quality of a visualization due to a variety of factors such as lack of information about the intrinsic dimension of the data and additional tuning required for many evaluation metrics. In this paper, we seek to provide a systematic comparison of dimensionality reduction quality metrics using datasets where we know the ground truth manifold. We utilize each metric for hyperparameter optimization in popular dimensionality reduction methods used for visualization and provide quantitative metrics to objectively compare visualizations to their original manifold. In our results, we find a few methods that appear to consistently do well and propose the best performer as a benchmark for evaluating dimensionality reduction based visualizations.


Detecting Adversarial Examples through Nonlinear Dimensionality Reduction

arXiv.org Machine Learning

Deep neural networks are vulnerable to adversarial examples, i.e., carefully-perturbed inputs aimed to mislead classification. This work proposes a detection method based on combining non-linear dimensionality reduction and density estimation techniques. Our empirical findings show that the proposed approach is able to effectively detect adversarial examples crafted by non-adaptive attackers, i.e., not specifically tuned to bypass the detection method. Given our promising results, we plan to extend our analysis to adaptive attackers in future work.


Riemannian joint dimensionality reduction and dictionary learning on symmetric positive definite manifold

arXiv.org Machine Learning

Dictionary leaning (DL) and dimensionality reduction (DR) are powerful tools to analyze high-dimensional noisy signals. This paper presents a proposal of a novel Riemannian joint dimensionality reduction and dictionary learning (R-JDRDL) on symmetric positive definite (SPD) manifolds for classification tasks. The joint learning considers the interaction between dimensionality reduction and dictionary learning procedures by connecting them into a unified framework. We exploit a Riemannian optimization framework for solving DL and DR problems jointly. Finally, we demonstrate that the proposed R-JDRDL outperforms existing state-of-the-arts algorithms when used for image classification tasks.


Data Dimensionality Reduction in the Age of Machine Learning

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Machine Learning is all the rage as companies try to make sense of the mountains of data they are collecting. Data is everywhere and proliferating at unprecedented speed. But, more data is not always better. In fact, large amounts of data can not only considerably slow down the system execution but can sometimes even produce worse performances in Data Analytics applications. We have found, through years of formal and informal testing, that data dimensionality reduction -- or the process of reducing the number of attributes under consideration when running analytics -- is useful not only for speeding up algorithm execution but also for improving overall model performance.


Data Dimensionality Reduction in the Age of Machine Learning - DATAVERSITY

#artificialintelligence

Click to learn more about author Rosaria Silipo. Machine Learning is all the rage as companies try to make sense of the mountains of data they are collecting. Data is everywhere and proliferating at unprecedented speed. But, more data is not always better. In fact, large amounts of data can not only considerably slow down the system execution but can sometimes even produce worse performances in Data Analytics applications.


Deep Variational Sufficient Dimensionality Reduction

arXiv.org Machine Learning

We consider the problem of sufficient dimensionality reduction (SDR), where the high-dimensional observation is transformed to a low-dimensional sub-space in which the information of the observations regarding the label variable is preserved. We propose DVSDR, a deep variational approach for sufficient dimensionality reduction. The deep structure in our model has a bottleneck that represent the low-dimensional embedding of the data. We explain the SDR problem using graphical models and use the framework of variational autoencoders to maximize the lower bound of the log-likelihood of the joint distribution of the observation and label. We show that such a maximization problem can be interpreted as solving the SDR problem. DVSDR can be easily adopted to semi-supervised learning setting. In our experiment we show that DVSDR performs competitively on classification tasks while being able to generate novel data samples.


Optimal terminal dimensionality reduction in Euclidean space

arXiv.org Machine Learning

Let $\varepsilon\in(0,1)$ and $X\subset\mathbb R^d$ be arbitrary with $|X|$ having size $n>1$. The Johnson-Lindenstrauss lemma states there exists $f:X\rightarrow\mathbb R^m$ with $m = O(\varepsilon^{-2}\log n)$ such that $$ \forall x\in X\ \forall y\in X, \|x-y\|_2 \le \|f(x)-f(y)\|_2 \le (1+\varepsilon)\|x-y\|_2 . $$ We show that a strictly stronger version of this statement holds, answering one of the main open questions of [MMMR18]: "$\forall y\in X$" in the above statement may be replaced with "$\forall y\in\mathbb R^d$", so that $f$ not only preserves distances within $X$, but also distances to $X$ from the rest of space. Previously this stronger version was only known with the worse bound $m = O(\varepsilon^{-4}\log n)$. Our proof is via a tighter analysis of (a specific instantiation of) the embedding recipe of [MMMR18].


Dimensionality Reduction For Dummies -- Part 1: Intuition

#artificialintelligence

We need to see in order to believe. When you have a dataset with more than three dimensions, it becomes impossible to see what's going on with our eyes. But who said that these extra dimensions are really necessary? Isn't there a way to somehow reduce it to one, two, or three humanly dimensions? It turns out there is.