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Dimensionality Reduction: Instructional Materials


5 Papers to Read on Dimensionality Reduction Method in 2022

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Abstract: Dimension reduction is an important tool for analyzing high-dimensional data. The predictor envelope is a method of dimension reduction for regression that assumes certain linear combinations of the predictors are immaterial to the regression. The method can result in substantial gains in estimation efficiency and prediction accuracy over traditional maximum likelihood and least squares estimates. While predictor envelopes have been developed and studied for independent data, no work has been done adapting predictor envelopes to spatial data. In this work, the predictor envelope is adapted to a popular spatial model to form the spatial predictor envelope (SPE).


TLDR: Twin Learning for Dimensionality Reduction

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

Dimensionality reduction methods are unsupervised approaches which learn low-dimensional spaces where some properties of the initial space, typically the notion of "neighborhood", are preserved. They are a crucial component of diverse tasks like visualization, compression, indexing, and retrieval. Aiming for a totally different goal, self-supervised visual representation learning has been shown to produce transferable representation functions by learning models that encode invariance to artificially created distortions, e.g. a set of hand-crafted image transformations. Unlike manifold learning methods that usually require propagation on large k-NN graphs or complicated optimization solvers, self-supervised learning approaches rely on simpler and more scalable frameworks for learning. In this paper, we unify these two families of approaches from the angle of manifold learning and propose TLDR, a dimensionality reduction method for generic input spaces that is porting the simple self-supervised learning framework of Barlow Twins to a setting where it is hard or impossible to define an appropriate set of distortions by hand. We propose to use nearest neighbors to build pairs from a training set and a redundancy reduction loss borrowed from the self-supervised literature to learn an encoder that produces representations invariant across such pairs. TLDR is a method that is simple, easy to implement and train, and of broad applicability; it consists of an offline nearest neighbor computation step that can be highly approximated, and a straightforward learning process that does not require mining negative samples to contrast, eigendecompositions, or cumbersome optimization solvers. By replacing PCA with TLDR, we are able to increase the performance of GeM-AP by 4% mAP for 128 dimensions, and to retain its performance with 16x fewer dimensions.


Laplacian-Based Dimensionality Reduction Including Spectral Clustering, Laplacian Eigenmap, Locality Preserving Projection, Graph Embedding, and Diffusion Map: Tutorial and Survey

arXiv.org Machine Learning

This is a tutorial and survey paper for nonlinear dimensionality and feature extraction methods which are based on the Laplacian of graph of data. We first introduce adjacency matrix, definition of Laplacian matrix, and the interpretation of Laplacian. Then, we cover the cuts of graph and spectral clustering which applies clustering in a subspace of data. Different optimization variants of Laplacian eigenmap and its out-of-sample extension are explained. Thereafter, we introduce the locality preserving projection and its kernel variant as linear special cases of Laplacian eigenmap. Versions of graph embedding are then explained which are generalized versions of Laplacian eigenmap and locality preserving projection. Finally, diffusion map is introduced which is a method based on Laplacian of data and random walks on the data graph.


Stochastic Mutual Information Gradient Estimation for Dimensionality Reduction Networks

arXiv.org Machine Learning

Applications in various research fields have developed different domain-specific methods for feature learning and subsequent supervised model training [24, 26, 28]. Many exploratory applications in practice are further characterized by high-dimensional feature representations where the dimensionality reduction problem is to be addressed. One traditional approach towards supervised dimensionality reduction is feature selection, referring to the process of selecting the most class-informative subset from the high-dimensional feature set and discarding others [16]. Particularly, feature selection based on information theoretic criteria (e.g., maximum mutual information) have shown significant promise in earlier studies [2, 25]. Although selecting a class-relevant subset of features leads to intuitively interpretable and preferable learning algorithms, feature ranking and selection algorithms are known to potentially yield sub-optimal solutions due to their inability to thoroughly assess feature dependencies [10, 44]. In that regard, feature transformation based dimensionality reduction methods provide a more robust alternative [16], which have been also studied in the form of information theoretic projections or rotations [11, 19, 43].


Feature Engineering and Dimensionality Reduction

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Udemy course Feature Engineering and Dimensionality Reduction Feature Selection vs Dimensionality Reduction While both methods are used for reducing the number of features in a dataset, there is an important difference. Feature selection is simply selecting and excluding given features without changing them. Dimensionality reduction transforms features into a lower dimension NED New What you'll learn The importance of Feature Engineering and Dimensionality Reduction in Data Science. Practical explanation and live coding with Python. Description Artificial Intelligence (AI) is indispensable these days.


6 Dimensionality Reduction Algorithms With Python

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Dimensionality reduction is an unsupervised learning technique. Nevertheless, it can be used as a data transform pre-processing step for machine learning algorithms on classification and regression predictive modeling datasets with supervised learning algorithms. There are many dimensionality reduction algorithms to choose from and no single best algorithm for all cases. Instead, it is a good idea to explore a range of dimensionality reduction algorithms and different configurations for each algorithm. In this tutorial, you will discover how to fit and evaluate top dimensionality reduction algorithms in Python.


The Dilemma Between Dimensionality Reduction and Adversarial Robustness

arXiv.org Machine Learning

Recent work has shown the tremendous vulnerability to adversarial samples that are nearly indistinguishable from benign data but are improperly classified by the deep learning model. Some of the latest findings suggest the existence of adversarial attacks may be an inherent weakness of these models as a direct result of its sensitivity to well-generalizing features in high dimensional data. We hypothesize that data transformations can influence this vulnerability since a change in the data manifold directly determines the adversary's ability to create these adversarial samples. To approach this problem, we study the effect of dimensionality reduction through the lens of adversarial robustness. This study raises awareness of the positive and negative impacts of five commonly used data transformation techniques on adversarial robustness. The evaluation shows how these techniques contribute to an overall increased vulnerability where accuracy is only improved when the dimensionality reduction technique approaches the data's optimal intrinsic dimension. The conclusions drawn from this work contribute to understanding and creating more resistant learning models.


Interpretable Discriminative Dimensionality Reduction and Feature Selection on the Manifold

arXiv.org Machine Learning

Dimensionality reduction (DR) on the manifold includes effective methods which project the data from an implicit relational space onto a vectorial space. Regardless of the achievements in this area, these algorithms suffer from the lack of interpretation of the projection dimensions. Therefore, it is often difficult to explain the physical meaning behind the embedding dimensions. In this research, we propose the interpretable kernel DR algorithm (I-KDR) as a new algorithm which maps the data from the feature space to a lower dimensional space where the classes are more condensed with less overlapping. Besides, the algorithm creates the dimensions upon local contributions of the data samples, which makes it easier to interpret them by class labels. Additionally, we efficiently fuse the DR with feature selection task to select the most relevant features of the original space to the discriminative objective. Based on the empirical evidence, I-KDR provides better interpretations for embedding dimensions as well as higher discriminative performance in the embedded space compared to the state-of-the-art and popular DR algorithms.


Laplacian Matrix for Dimensionality Reduction and Clustering

arXiv.org Machine Learning

Many problems in machine learning can be expressed by means of a graph with nodes representing training samples and edges representing the relationship between samples in terms of similarity, temporal proximity, or label information. Graphs can in turn be represented by matrices. A special example is the Laplacian matrix, which allows us to assign each node a value that varies only little between strongly connected nodes and more between distant nodes. Such an assignment can be used to extract a useful feature representation, find a good embedding of data in a low dimensional space, or perform clustering on the original samples. In these lecture notes we first introduce the Laplacian matrix and then present a small number of algorithms designed around it.


A Semi-supervised Spatial Spectral Regularized Manifold Local Scaling Cut With HGF for Dimensionality Reduction of Hyperspectral Images

arXiv.org Machine Learning

Hyperspectral images (HSI) contain a wealth of information over hundreds of contiguous spectral bands, making it possible to classify materials through subtle spectral discrepancies. However, the classification of this rich spectral information is accompanied by the challenges like high dimensionality, singularity, limited training samples, lack of labeled data samples, heteroscedasticity and nonlinearity. To address these challenges, we propose a semi-supervised graph based dimensionality reduction method named `semi-supervised spatial spectral regularized manifold local scaling cut' (S3RMLSC). The underlying idea of the proposed method is to exploit the limited labeled information from both the spectral and spatial domains along with the abundant unlabeled samples to facilitate the classification task by retaining the original distribution of the data. In S3RMLSC, a hierarchical guided filter (HGF) is initially used to smoothen the pixels of the HSI data to preserve the spatial pixel consistency. This step is followed by the construction of linear patches from the nonlinear manifold by using the maximal linear patch (MLP) criterion. Then the inter-patch and intra-patch dissimilarity matrices are constructed in both spectral and spatial domains by regularized manifold local scaling cut (RMLSC) and neighboring pixel manifold local scaling cut (NPMLSC) respectively. Finally, we obtain the projection matrix by optimizing the updated semi-supervised spatial-spectral between-patch and total-patch dissimilarity. The effectiveness of the proposed DR algorithm is illustrated with publicly available real-world HSI datasets.