Evolutionary Systems



Our code is based off of code from OpenAI, who we thank. The original code and related paper from OpenAI can be found here. The repo has been modified to run both ES and our algorithms, including our Deep Genetic Algorithm (DeepGA) locally and on AWS. Note: The Humanoid experiment depends on Mujoco. If you plan to use the mujoco env, make sure to follow mujoco-py's readme about how to install mujoco correctly The extra folder holds the XML specification file for the Humanoid Locomotion with Deceptive Trap domain used in https://arxiv.org/abs/1712.06560.

Evolutionary Robotics A Review

AI Magazine

It presents experimental studies of evolving low-level and high-level functions in real and simulated robots. The main thesis of the book is that evolutionary robotics provides a viable alternative to classical techniques of designing autonomous robots. An important point emphasized throughout the book is that "evolutionary robotics, … releases the designer from the burden of deciding how to break the desired behavior down into simple behaviors." The book is suited for both the educated reader with an interest in such matters and the professional reader, including researchers in artificial life, cognitive science, adaptive behavior and AI. Its style, scope, and depth make the reading worthwhile.

On the Origin of Environments by Means of Natural Selection

AI Magazine

The field of adaptive robotics involves simulations and real-world implementations of robots that adapt to their environments. In this article, I introduce adaptive environmentics--the flip side of adaptive robotics--in which the environment adapts to the robot. The reasonable man adapts himself to the world; the unreasonable man persists to adapt the world to himself. Therefore, all progress depends on the unreasonable. The apparent complexity of its behavior over time is largely a reflection of the complexity of the environment in which it finds itself. Using both simulated and real robots, and applying techniques such as reinforcement learning, artificial neural networks, genetic algorithms, and fuzzy logic, researchers have obtained robots that display an amazing slew of behaviors and perform a multitude of tasks, including walking, pushing boxes, navigating, negotiating an obstacle course, playing ball, and foraging (Arkin 1998a). To cite one typical example of an ever-growing many, Yung and Ye (1999) recently wrote: We have presented a fuzzy navigator that performs well in complex and unknown environments, using a rule base that is learned from a simple corridor-like environment. The principle of the navigator is built on the fusion of the obstacle avoidance and goal seeking behaviors aided by an environment evaluator to tune the universe of discourse of the input sensor readings and enhance its adaptability. For this reason, the navigator has been able to learn extremely quickly in a simple environment, and then operate in an unknown environment, where exploration is not required at all. This quote typifies the underlying theme of adaptive robotics: Have a robot adapt to a given environment. Given signifies neither that the environment is known nor that it is static; it means that the robot must adapt to the quirks and idiosyncrasies imposed by the environment--which, for its part, does nothing at all to accommodate the puffing robot. This fundamental principle of adaptive robotics--the environment's unyielding nature--is repealed in this article. Dubbed adaptive environmentics, the basic idea is to create scenarios that are mirror images of those found in adaptive robotics: The environment adapts to a given robot. I hasten to say that in some cases, it is not possible to alter the environment, and in other cases, having the robot adapt is simply the underlying objective. Adaptive robotics has produced many interesting results based on these principles.

The Fifth International Conference on Genetic Algorithms

AI Magazine

The Fifth International Conference on Genetic Algorithms was held at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign from 17-21 July 1993. Approximately 350 participants attended the multitrack conference, which covered a wide range of topics, including genetic operators, mathematical analysis of genetic algorithms, parallel genetic algorithms, classifier systems, and genetic programming. This article highlights the major themes of the conference by discussing a few papers in detail. The conference was organized by Stephanie Forrest (University of New Mexico, conference cochair and editor of the proceedings), David Goldberg (University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, conference cochair and local arrangements chair), and J. David Schaffer (Philips Laboratories, New York, conference cochair). Of the 240 papers submitted to the conference, 82 were accepted for oral presentation, and 37 were accepted for poster presentation.

The Age of Analog Networks

AI Magazine

A large class of systems of biological and technological relevance can be described as analog networks, that is, collections of dynamic devices interconnected by links of varying strength. Some examples of analog networks are genetic regulatory networks, metabolic networks, neural networks, analog electronic circuits, and control systems. Analog networks are typically complex systems that include nonlinear feedback loops and possess temporal dynamics at different time scales. Both the synthesis and reverse engineering of analog networks are recognized as knowledge-intensive activities, for which few systematic techniques exist. In this paper we will discuss the general relevance of the analog network concept and describe an evolutionary approach to the automatic synthesis and the reverse engineering of analog networks.

Optimal Crop Selection Using Multiobjective Evolutionary Algorithms

AI Magazine

Soil characteristics are extremely important when determining yield potential. Fertilization and liming are commonly used to adapt soils to the nutritional requirements of the crops to be cultivated. Planting the crop that will best fit the soil characteristics is an interesting alternative to minimize the need for soil treatment, reducing costs and potential environmental damages. In addition, farmers usually look for investments that offer the greatest potential earnings with the least possible risks. Regarding the objectives to be considered, the crop-selection problem may be difficult to solve using traditional tools.

Worldwide AI

AI Magazine

Neuromorphic, evolutionary, or fuzzylike systems have been developed by many research groups in the Spanish computer sciences. It is no surprise, then, that these naturegrounded efforts start to emerge, enriching the AI catalogue of research projects and publications and, eventually, leading to new directions of basic or applied research. In this article, we review the contribution of Melomics in computational creativity. In Spain there are 74 universities, many of which have computer science departments that host AIrelated research groups. AEPIA, the Spanish society for AI research, was founded in 1983 and has been vigorously promoting the advancement of AI since then. Along with several other societies and communities of interest, it promotes various periodic conferences and workshops. The Artificial Intelligence Research Institute (IIIA) of the Spanish National Research Council constitutes one of the flagships of local AI research. Ramón López de Mántaras, IIIA's renowned director, was one of the pioneers of AI in Spain, and he also was the recipient of the prestigious AAAI Englemore Award in 2011. Other researchers that have reached an outstanding position, and lead important research groups in Spain, include Antonio Bahamonde (University of Oviedo), Federico Barber (Polytechnic University of Madrid), Vicent Botti (Polytechnic University of Valencia), and Amparo Vila (University of Granada). This department, with more than one hundred faculty members, is organized in several research groups, three of which maintain active AI research lines. Melomics is a new approach in artificial creativity (for a perspective on this discipline, see the 2009 fall issue of AI Magazine). More specifically, it focuses on algorithmic composition and aims at the full automation of the composition process of professional music.

Computer Models of Creativity

AI Magazine

It's an aspect of normal human intelligence, not a special faculty granted to a tiny elite. There are three forms: combinational, exploratory, and transformational. All three can be modeled by AI--in some cases, with impressive results. AI techniques underlie various types of computer art. Whether computers could "really" be creative isn't a scientific question but a philosophical one, to which there's no clear answer.

Coevolving Soccer Softbots

AI Magazine

Unlike other entrants that fashioned good softbot teams from a battery of relatively wellunderstood robotics techniques, our goal was to see if it was even possible to use evolutionary computation to develop high-level soccer behaviors that were competitive with the human-crafted strategies of other teams. Although evolutionary computation has been successful in many fields, evolving a computer algorithm has proven challenging, especially in a domain such as robot soccer. Our approach was to evolve a population of teams of Lisp s-expression algorithms, evaluating each team by attaching its algorithms to robot players and trying them out in the simulator. Early experiments tested individual players, but ultimately, the final runs pitted whole teams against each other using coevolution. After evaluation, a team's fitness assessment was based on its success relative to its opponent.

Automatically Generating Game Tactics through Evolutionary Learning

AI Magazine

The decision-making process of computer-controlled opponents in video games is called game AI. Adaptive game AI can improve the entertainment value of games by allowing computer-controlled opponents to fix weaknesses automatically in the game AI and to respond to changes in human-player tactics. Dynamic scripting is a reinforcement learning approach to adaptive game AI that learns, during gameplay, which game tactics an opponent should select to play effectively. In previous work, the tactics used by dynamic scripting were designed manually. We introduce the evolutionary state-based tactics generator (ESTG), which uses an evolutionary algorithm to generate tactics automatically.