Evolutionary Systems


The Brutal Truth about Data Science and Data Scientists

#artificialintelligence

Most data scientists and the organizations that employ them don't seem to understand how data science is actually done, nor what it is exactly. They sort of jumped on the bandwagon -- without really understanding it, nor why it was important to them in a very visceral way. Science is not merely predictive -- at its heart, it is explanatory as well as diagnostic. Science leads to engineering -- a systematic mathematical approach to creating technology solutions based on the exploitation of some natural phenomenon. Winning Kaggle competitions is not data science; though, it is a reasonable start, I suppose – even though the best models in Kaggle are actually built by machines running genetic algorithms, where natural selection drives the outcome.


Researchers use biological evolution to inspire machine learning

#artificialintelligence

As Charles Darwin wrote in at the end of his seminal 1859 book On the Origin of the Species, "whilst this planet has gone cycling on according to the fixed law of gravity, from so simple a beginning endless forms most beautiful and most wonderful have been, and are being, evolved." Scientists have since long believed that the diversity and range of forms of life on Earth provide evidence that biological evolution spontaneously innovates in an open-ended way, constantly inventing new things. However, attempts to construct artificial simulations of evolutionary systems tend to run into limits in the complexity and novelty which they can produce. This is sometimes referred to as "the problem of open-endedness." Because of this difficulty, to date, scientists can't easily make artificial systems capable of exhibiting the richness and diversity of biological systems.


From drone swarms to AI border guards: How futuristic technology could be used to police Britain's borders

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Whether it is the Irish backstop or English Channel, the issue of how the UK and Europe are controlling their borders has been thrust into the public consciousness. And as with many of the globe's conundrums, countries and private companies are turning to ever more futuristic, and often controversial, technologies in order to protect their borders. There are, of course, immediate issues for Britain's borders with quandaries such as the potential hard border in Northern Ireland following Brexit, with the nebulous'technology' promised by some politicians either still being developed or put under question. One such future proposal is a satellite system that registered mobile phones as they pass the border, while sensors buried in the ground or radars on flying drones could detect possible unlawful breaches of the boundaries. But that would still leave the question of invasive, even if largely invisible, checks that run against the Good Friday Agreement.


Biological evolution inspires machine learning

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In a new study published in the journal Artificial Life, a research team led by Nicholas Guttenberg and Nathaniel Virgo of the Earth-Life Science Institute (ELSI) at Tokyo Institute of Technology, Japan, and Alexandra Penn of The Centre for Evaluation of Complexity Across the Nexus (CECAN), University of Surrey UK (CRESS), examine the connection between biological evolutionary open-endedness and recent studies in machine learning, hoping that by connecting ideas from artificial life and machine learning, it will become possible to combine neural networks with the motivations and ideas of artificial life to create new forms of open-endedness. One source of open-endedness in evolving biological systems is an "arms race" for survival. For example, faster foxes may evolve to catch faster rabbits, which in turn may evolve to become even faster to get away from the faster foxes. This idea is mirrored in recent developments involving placing networks in competition with each other to produce things such as realistic images using generative adversarial networks (GANs), and to discover strategies in games such as Go, which can now easily beat top human players. In evolution, factors such as mutation can limit the extent of an arms race.


r/artificial - Evolutionary/Genetic Algorithms

#artificialintelligence

What is happening in the field of evolutionary and genetic algorithms today? Are there any cutting edge scientific projects in terms of AI/AGI? I'd very much appreciate it if someone could link me the relevant websites, researches, papers regarding the subject along with respective books or monographs. I'm just trying to find things out and getting back on track.


Memetic EDA-Based Approaches to Comprehensive Quality-Aware Automated Semantic Web Service Composition

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

Comprehensive quality-aware automated semantic web service composition is an NP-hard problem, where service composition workflows are unknown, and comprehensive quality, i.e., Quality of services (QoS) and Quality of semantic matchmaking (QoSM) are simultaneously optimized. The objective of this problem is to find a solution with optimized or near-optimized overall QoS and QoSM within polynomial time over a service request. In this paper, we proposed novel memetic EDA-based approaches to tackle this problem. The proposed method investigates the effectiveness of several neighborhood structures of composite services by proposing domain-dependent local search operators. Apart from that, a joint strategy of the local search procedure is proposed to integrate with a modified EDA to reduce the overall computation time of our memetic approach. To better demonstrate the effectiveness and scalability of our approach, we create a more challenging, augmented version of the service composition benchmark based on WSC-08 \cite{bansal2008wsc} and WSC-09 \cite{kona2009wsc}. Experimental results on this benchmark show that one of our proposed memetic EDA-based approach (i.e., MEEDA-LOP) significantly outperforms existing state-of-the-art algorithms.


Adversarial Training Can Hurt Generalization

arXiv.org Machine Learning

While adversarial training can improve robust accuracy (against an adversary), it sometimes hurts standard accuracy (when there is no adversary). Previous work has studied this tradeoff between standard and robust accuracy, but only in the setting where no predictor performs well on both objectives in the infinite data limit. In this paper, we show that even when the optimal predictor with infinite data performs well on both objectives, a tradeoff can still manifest itself with finite data. Furthermore, since our construction is based on a convex learning problem, we rule out optimization concerns, thus laying bare a fundamental tension between robustness and generalization. Finally, we show that robust self-training mostly eliminates this tradeoff by leveraging unlabeled data.


General Video Game Rule Generation

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

We introduce the General Video Game Rule Generation problem, and the eponymous software framework which will be used in a new track of the General Video Game AI (GVGAI) competition. The problem is, given a game level as input, to generate the rules of a game that fits that level. This can be seen as the inverse of the General Video Game Level Generation problem. Conceptualizing these two problems as separate helps breaking the very hard problem of generating complete games into smaller, more manageable subproblems. The proposed framework builds on the GVGAI software and thus asks the rule generator for rules defined in the Video Game Description Language. We describe the API, and three different rule generators: a random, a constructive and a search-based generator. Early results indicate that the constructive generator generates playable and somewhat interesting game rules but has a limited expressive range, whereas the search-based generator generates remarkably diverse rulesets, but with an uneven quality.


Empowering Quality Diversity in Dungeon Design with Interactive Constrained MAP-Elites

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

We propose the use of quality-diversity algorithms for mixed-initiative game content generation. This idea is implemented as a new feature of the Evolutionary Dungeon Designer, a system for mixed-initiative design of the type of levels you typically find in computer role playing games. The feature uses the MAP-Elites algorithm, an illumination algorithm which divides the population into a number of cells depending on their values along several behavioral dimensions. Users can flexibly and dynamically choose relevant dimensions of variation, and incorporate suggestions produced by the algorithm in their map designs. At the same time, any modifications performed by the human feed back into MAP-Elites, and are used to generate further suggestions.


Stable Rank Normalization for Improved Generalization in Neural Networks and GANs

arXiv.org Machine Learning

Exciting new work on the generalization bounds for neural networks (NN) given by Neyshabur et al. , Bartlett et al. closely depend on two parameter-depenedent quantities: the Lipschitz constant upper-bound and the stable rank (a softer version of the rank operator). This leads to an interesting question of whether controlling these quantities might improve the generalization behaviour of NNs. To this end, we propose stable rank normalization (SRN), a novel, optimal, and computationally efficient weight-normalization scheme which minimizes the stable rank of a linear operator. Surprisingly we find that SRN, inspite of being non-convex problem, can be shown to have a unique optimal solution. Moreover, we show that SRN allows control of the data-dependent empirical Lipschitz constant, which in contrast to the Lipschitz upper-bound, reflects the true behaviour of a model on a given dataset. We provide thorough analyses to show that SRN, when applied to the linear layers of a NN for classification, provides striking improvements-11.3% on the generalization gap compared to the standard NN along with significant reduction in memorization. When applied to the discriminator of GANs (called SRN-GAN) it improves Inception, FID, and Neural divergence scores on the CIFAR 10/100 and CelebA datasets, while learning mappings with low empirical Lipschitz constants.