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### 'A train wreck': what happens to workers and towns when the lights go out on coal power?

When Jacqui Coleman heard that Australia's largest coal-fired power station was to close seven years earlier than planned, she initially didn't believe it. Coleman is a retail worker in Dora Creek, the closest suburb to the Eraring power station on the shores of Lake Macquarie in New South Wales. For years, she has been selling pies, coffees and sandwiches to some of the hundreds of workers who pass through the News'n' More grocery store on either side of a shift. On Thursday morning, Origin Energy announced it was bringing forward the station's closure to 2025. Many workers at the site first learned their jobs were to be terminated seven years early when they heard it reported on the radio.

### KnAC: an approach for enhancing cluster analysis with background knowledge and explanations

Pattern discovery in multidimensional data sets has been a subject of research since decades. There exists a wide spectrum of clustering algorithms that can be used for that purpose. However, their practical applications share in common the post-clustering phase, which concerns expert-based interpretation and analysis of the obtained results. We argue that this can be a bottleneck of the process, especially in the cases where domain knowledge exists prior to clustering. Such a situation requires not only a proper analysis of automatically discovered clusters, but also a conformance checking with existing knowledge. In this work, we present Knowledge Augmented Clustering (KnAC), which main goal is to confront expert-based labelling with automated clustering for the sake of updating and refining the former. Our solution does not depend on any ready clustering algorithm, nor introduce one. Instead KnAC can serve as an augmentation of an arbitrary clustering algorithm, making the approach robust and model-agnostic. We demonstrate the feasibility of our method on artificially, reproducible examples and on a real life use case scenario.

### Modelling the transition to a low-carbon energy supply

A transition to a low-carbon electricity supply is crucial to limit the impacts of climate change. Reducing carbon emissions could help prevent the world from reaching a tipping point, where runaway emissions are likely. Runaway emissions could lead to extremes in weather conditions around the world -- especially in problematic regions unable to cope with these conditions. However, the movement to a low-carbon energy supply can not happen instantaneously due to the existing fossil-fuel infrastructure and the requirement to maintain a reliable energy supply. Therefore, a low-carbon transition is required, however, the decisions various stakeholders should make over the coming decades to reduce these carbon emissions are not obvious. This is due to many long-term uncertainties, such as electricity, fuel and generation costs, human behaviour and the size of electricity demand. A well choreographed low-carbon transition is, therefore, required between all of the heterogenous actors in the system, as opposed to changing the behaviour of a single, centralised actor. The objective of this thesis is to create a novel, open-source agent-based model to better understand the manner in which the whole electricity market reacts to different factors using state-of-the-art machine learning and artificial intelligence methods. In contrast to other works, this thesis looks at both the long-term and short-term impact that different behaviours have on the electricity market by using these state-of-the-art methods.