Hematology


Scientists Use Stem Cells To Create Functional Artificial Blood

International Business Times

In one new study, researchers created a mix of different types of blood stem cells that produced different kinds of human blood cells when transfused into mice, The Independent reported. This is an important step toward making artificial human blood, as doctors believe that figuring out a way to turn stem cells into blood artificially will eventually lead to this breakthrough. For example, in a study published in March, scientists in England were able to produce about 50,000 red blood cells by coaxing stem cells into transforming into red blood cells. Another problem that stands in our way of successfully making limitless artificial blood is the risk of these new blood cells becoming cancerous, The Independent reported.


Breakthrough reported in quest to make blood cells

The Japan Times

In separate experiments reported in Nature -- one with mice, the other transplanting human stem cells into mouse bone marrow -- researchers demonstrated techniques with the potential to produce all types of blood cells. Human embryonic stem cells -- generic cells which, as the embryo develops, gradually differentiate -- were first isolated in 1998. They began by inducing both embryonic stems cells and iPS to morph into a form of embryonic tissue that -- in a natural process -- gives rise to blood stem cells. Finally, they transplanted these human blood stem cells into the bone marrow of live mice.


Working brain circuitry grown in a lab dish for first time

Daily Mail

Scientists hope to use the mini-brains to watch in real time the triggers for epilepsy, when brain cells become hyperactive, and autism, where they are thought to form bad connections. Human skin cells are transformed into pluripotent stem cells, capable of becoming any part of the body, using four genes in a petri dish. Dr Selina Wray, Alzheimer's Research UK senior research fellow at UCL Institute of Neurology, said: 'This technology will provide researchers with insights into brain development and disease which have not previously been possible.' Human skin cells are transformed into pluripotent stem cells, capable of becoming any part of the body, using four genes in a petri dish.


Stroke patients use artificial intelligence to ensure full therapeutic benefit

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Results from a randomized controlled trial published this week in the American Heart Association's journal Stroke demonstrate that stroke survivors were twice as likely to take anti-blood clot treatment (anticoagulants) when using an artificial intelligence (AI) platform than patients receiving treatment as usual. "In the absence of routine laboratory monitoring, artificial intelligence has the potential to automate a critical component of care -- adherence monitoring -- and provide continuity of care between visits to ensure patients persist with their therapy and get full therapeutic benefit," said Daniel Labovitz, M.D., lead author and Director of the Stern Stroke Center at Montefiore Medical Center. The 12-week study included ischemic stroke (clot caused) survivors randomly assigned to AI platform for daily monitoring or treatment as usual groups. To measure treatment adherence, researchers tested the concentration of medication in blood samples.1 Blood tests showed that 100% of patients in the intervention arm took medication regularly, compared to only half in the control arm.



Machine learning predicts the look of stem cells - PharmaVOICE

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The Allen Cell Explorer, produced by the Allen Institute for Cell Science in Seattle, Washington, includes a growing library of more than 6,000 pictures of induced pluripotent stem cells (iPS) -- key components of which glow thanks to fluorescent markers that highlight specific genes. Rick Horwitz, director of the Allen Institute for Cell Science, says that the institute's images may hasten progress in stem cell research, cancer research and drug development by revealing unexpected aspects of cellular structure. The Allen Institute's visual emphasis on stem cells dovetails with a number of efforts to catalogue other aspects of cells. Aviv Regev, a computational biologist at the Broad Institute in Cambridge, Massachusetts, who is working on the Human Cell Atlas, says that the Allen Cell Explorer complements her project by focusing on the look of cellular features as opposed to how genes, RNA and proteins interact within the cell.


AI Based 3D Stem Cell Image Prediction Could Help Cure Cancer

International Business Times

A new online catalogue made using artificial intelligence (AI) based prediction will have 6,000 different images predicting stem cell structures, which could make mapping a pattern of cells easier. The Allen Cell Explorer made by the Allen Institute for Cell Science in Seattle, Washington will have pictures of induced pluripotent stem cells (iPS), which will glow using fluorescent markers to highlight different genes.The visuals, which have been created using AI-based deep learning analysis and cell lines altered using gene editing tool Crispr will allow researchers to analyze the variations in the cell layouts, which could help cure diseases such as cancer. The catalogue was able to train its AI using gene editing -- reverting adult cells to stem cells and tagging genes, making cell structures grow so that their growth could be traced. Then, all that was needed to be done was training AI to track stem cell development and comparing it with real-world examples to correct any inconsistencies.


Machine learning predicts the look of stem cells

#artificialintelligence

The Allen Cell Explorer, produced by the Allen Institute for Cell Science in Seattle, Washington, includes a growing library of more than 6,000 pictures of induced pluripotent stem cells (iPS) -- key components of which glow thanks to fluorescent markers that highlight specific genes. Rick Horwitz, director of the Allen Institute for Cell Science, says that the institute's images may hasten progress in stem cell research, cancer research and drug development by revealing unexpected aspects of cellular structure. The Allen Institute's visual emphasis on stem cells dovetails with a number of efforts to catalogue other aspects of cells. Aviv Regev, a computational biologist at the Broad Institute in Cambridge, Massachusetts, who is working on the Human Cell Atlas, says that the Allen Cell Explorer complements her project by focusing on the look of cellular features as opposed to how genes, RNA and proteins interact within the cell.


AI predicts the layout of human stem cells

Engadget

The structures of stem cells can vary wildly, even if they're genetically identical -- and that could be critical to predicting the onset of diseases like cancer. That's where the Allen Institute wants to help: it's launching an online database, the Allen Cell Explorer, where deep learning AI predicts the layout of human stem cells. After reverting adult cells to stem cells, researchers tagged genes to make cell structures glow and track their layout. This helped identify a clear relationship between the locations of cell structures, making it possible to predict how a stem cell would develop.


3 Exciting Biotech Trends to Watch Closely in 2017

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That fiction is now becoming a reality with cell therapies from companies like Juno (curing two infants with leukemia of their previously treatment resistant cancers with engineered T-cells), induced pluripotent stem cells (iPS) pioneered by the Nobel prize winning scientist, Shinya Yamanaka that can become any cell in the body, growing organoids (mini organs with some function of a fully grown organ like the stomach organoids grown by researchers in Ohio), and entirely re-grown organs. United Therapeutics is focused on growing humanized organs in Xenograph models (pigs), OneSkin is focused on growing and regenerating human skin, and companies like Scaled Biolabs have grown kidney organoids in the lab (with six cell types present in a full kidney present in the mini-organ). Using the same imaging protocol, it was estimated it would take 17 million years to image the human brain, but luckily, technology continues to advance and accelerate in neuroscience. Continued improvements in knowledge of other species, better resolution technologies from MRIs, CAT scans and EEGs, combined with machine learning, have resulted in dramatically improved understanding of the human brain's functioning.