If you are looking for an answer to the question What is Artificial Intelligence? and you only have a minute, then here's the definition the Association for the Advancement of Artificial Intelligence offers on its home page: "the scientific understanding of the mechanisms underlying thought and intelligent behavior and their embodiment in machines."
However, if you are fortunate enough to have more than a minute, then please get ready to embark upon an exciting journey exploring AI (but beware, it could last a lifetime) …
The University of Florida is offering artificial intelligence courses to its faculty and staff for free as part of a years-long push to establish itself as an AI leader. After an internal announcement earlier this month, the university on Monday announced that AI microcredentials, which normally each cost around $240 and take four hours to complete, are freely available. The courses were developed in a collaboration between four of UF's colleges to familiarize professionals with AI. Making the credentials available to staff for free can help give context to people in departments like enrollment, fundraising or student life to speak about the institution's AI investments, said Regina Rodriguez, a provost fellow for professional education. "Being able to know that you are knowledgeable about a specific area that university is taking on and building across every single college is so important because then you can come to the table with knowledge or at least understanding the vocabulary and not feel intimidated," she told EdScoop.
Scientists have curated an Artificial Intelligence which can identify and count distress signals from chickens. The tool can be used by farmers to improve conditions for chickens raised on crowded commercial farms. As per the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, there were over 33 billion chickens around the world as of 2020. Many of them were living in poor conditions. However, now, the researchers have claimed that the AI which quantifies distress calls made by chickens housed in huge indoor sheds, can correctly distinguish these calls from other barn noises.
Spinal cord stimulation has restored movement in the partially paralysed arms of three monkeys. Restoring movement in upper limbs is very difficult, says Marco Capogrosso at the University of Pittsburgh in Pennsylvania. Arm movements are more complex than leg movements, he says, with the latter being easier to restore post-paralysis. Electrical stimulation has previously been used on paralysed arms in people, but the surgeries are invasive and require complicated machine-learning software to decode and translate nerve cell activity. Capogrosso and his colleagues wanted to test whether an alternative form of spinal cord stimulation could be a simpler and more effective way of restoring movement in upper limbs, with no translation of nerve signals by a computer.
'Everything a creator builds is in their own image' - a sentiment we've been fed since forever might actually be true. A robot recently shocked scientists after it became racist and sexist. While such deplorable behaviour is commonly observed among humans, we had better hopes from artificial intelligence. If you expected AI to be impartial and intellectually superior, that's clearly not the case. A recent experiment by researchers from John Hopkins University, Georgia Institute of Technology, and the University of Washington showed how a robot controlled by a machine learning tool began to categorise people based on dangerous stereotypes about race and gender.
Nooshin Abbasi is a post-doctoral research fellow at Brigham and Women's Hospital, Harvard Medical School, and a former research fellow at the Montreal Neurological Institute, McGill University. Her research interests include brain imaging, evidence-based imaging, and bioinformatics, with a focus on applying machine learning tools to large clinical and imaging datasets. Michael Dohopolski is a PGY5 radiation oncology resident. He has worked with Dr. Wang and Dr. Jiang at UT Southwestern on machine learning based clinical decision-making support tools with an emphasis on single prediction uncertainty estimation. She is in the Department of Neurosurgery, University of Pennsylvania, and Division of Neurosurgery, Children's Hospital of Philadelphia.
Most small birds will use a few wingbeats to hover before touching down on a branch, but raptors like Harris hawks are too large and heavy to use this method. Instead, they make an abrupt dive and upward swoop just before perching, which reduces the chance of a clumsy landing. Young hawks appeared to learn the behaviour though experience, improving their perching skills after around two dozen attempts. To better understand how and why hawks use this dramatic swooping motion, Graham Taylor at the University of Oxford and his team observed the birds in slow motion. The team started by breaking down the flight patterns of four Harris hawks (Parabuteo unicinctus) perching at different distances.
Precisely sculpted sound waves have been used to levitate components and tiny droplets of quick-setting glue to build complex structures piece by piece in mid-air. The approach may have practical engineering and medical applications. Asier Marzo at the Public University of Navarre, Spain, and his colleagues have developed a system called LeviPrint, which uses a robot arm that can create very specific sound waves. The arm's movement and acoustic levitation abilities mean that it can carry components to assemble an object from them without touching any parts. By sculpting sound waves, the machine is able to levitate, rotate and move droplets of glue or resin and small sticks, and by combining these, it can create complex structures.
An AI has been trained to identify and count chickens' distress calls. Farmers could use the tool to improve conditions for chickens raised on crowded commercial farms. As of 2020, there were more than 33 billion chickens around the world, according to the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. Many of these animals live in poor conditions, packed together with little ability to move around or do things chickens like to do. "Despite the basic concerns about not being hungry or not being thirsty, there are still serious welfare concerns about how they're produced," says Alan McElligott at City University of Hong Kong.
In brief US hardware startup Cerebras claims to have trained the largest AI model on a single device powered by the world's largest Wafer Scale Engine 2 chip the size of a plate. "Using the Cerebras Software Platform (CSoft), our customers can easily train state-of-the-art GPT language models (such as GPT-3 and GPT-J) with up to 20 billion parameters on a single CS-2 system," the company claimed this week. "Running on a single CS-2, these models take minutes to set up and users can quickly move between models with just a few keystrokes." The CS-2 packs a whopping 850,000 cores, and has 40GB of on-chip memory capable of reaching 20 PB/sec memory bandwidth. The specs on other types of AI accelerators and GPUs pale in comparison, meaning machine learning engineers have to train huge AI models with billions of parameters across more servers.
Soon, computers could sense that users have a problem and come to the rescue. This is one of the possible implications of new research at University of Copenhagen and University of Helsinki. "We can make a computer edit images entirely based on thoughts generated by human subjects. The computer has absolutely no prior information about which features it is supposed to edit or how. Nobody has ever done this before," says Associate Professor Tuukka Ruotsalo, Department of Computer Science, University of Copenhagen.